آموزش مدیریت پروژه: مهارت های انسانی ضروری
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 26, Issue 2, February 2008, Pages 124–128
This paper is intended to provide an insight into the importance of human skills in project management success and the apparent lack of emphasis placed on this within the context of university education. The discussion will call upon the viewpoints of many notable authors in respect to the human or ‘soft’ skills that are necessary in the management of projects. Against this background a review will be conducted into how well project management literature and university education equips potential project managers in the area of human skills. As the PMBOK® Guide is one of the major recommended texts in Australian universities offering project management education, the paper will identify that it predominantly emphasises the required ‘hard (technical) skills’ at the expense of the ‘soft (human) skills’. Subsequent discussion will highlight the need for a balance between hard and soft skills within project management education in universities. It will conclude that educators within this discipline should recognise the importance of incorporating greater human skills aspects into their educational programs.
The skill sets required for success in the work place have changed dramatically in the past few years. Employers insist on a better prepared workforce that is more adaptable, responsible and teachable to help meet the competitive realities of a global economy . Most employers today expect workers to demonstrate and excel in many ‘softer’ skills such as teamwork and group development . They are keen to tap into these vital soft skills obtained during study and periods of work experience, rather than just degree-specific knowledge . There is a growing demand for project management skills as a consequence of the projectisation of organisations. Project management is being viewed as the ‘new’ form of general management which enables organisations to integrate, plan, and control schedule-intensive and one-of-a-kind endeavours in order to improve overall organisational performance  and . To cater to this demand and to make education more relevant to the reality of the workplace many university degrees are offering project management courses either as core programs or as electives. The paper presents arguments on the need for universities to broaden their emphasis of project management education to include both human and technical skills.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Project management practice has long acknowledged the need to educate and train its up and coming professionals. In fact, what makes project management recognisable as a professional discipline exists within the teaching and learning of the knowledge it holds as well as its emphasis on the aspects of literature, research and bodies of knowledge. As such it could be inferred that what is taught in project management is what project managers are. It would therefore seem valid to question whether project management programs offered by various universities are equipping students with the appropriate knowledge/skills in respect to their preparation for entry into the workforce. The paper discussed how the project management discipline still appears to place greater emphasis on hard skills at the expense of the softer human skills. Evidence to support this conclusion can be seen in body of knowledge guides such as that of PMBOK® as well as the program syllabi of many educational providers of project management studies. There are a growing number of those that are critical in respect to the suitability of such substantially hard approaches to project management. The criticism is not in respect to the teaching of technical skills within project management but rather the lack of emphasis on the human side. A more balanced approach between hard and soft concepts would see them complementing each other and enhancing project management education in the process. As such it is proposed that a new way of thinking is necessary to broaden existing approaches by including the more human types of issues as previously identified by the likes of Strang , Mantel et al. , Loo  and Belzer . Such a proposal may ultimately educate students and professionals of project management about the contribution that ‘soft’ thinking can make to successful project outcomes. Thus it is recommended that the presentation of ideas about such concepts should start in the classrooms of educational institutions that deliver project management education. Empirical research into this topic needs to be conducted to further investigate the claims made in this paper and to provide future directions for educators in the discipline.