آگاهی سیستم مدیریت زیست محیطی : بررسی 50 پیمانکار ارشد در مصر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6473||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 18, Issue 3, February 2010, Pages 210–218
The construction industry, as an economically strategic sector and a large contributor to pollution generation, is expected to face enormous obstacles if it doesn't respond to the new business and regulatory environmental requirements in an increasingly competitive market after international trade liberization. A practical tool to achieve sustainable construction is through adopting Environmental Management Systems (EMS). Movement towards environmental management systems is getting momentum in the construction industry of most developed countries. However this field is still a relatively new and the concept is still marginalized in most of the developing world. It is suggested that lack of awareness is a major contributor to this lag. This paper reports on the results of a research on the environmental awareness of the top 50 contractors in Egypt. It investigates their ISO 14001/EMS awareness, opinions about contractor's responsibility towards the environment, necessity of ISO 14001, and obstacles and potentials for ISO 14001 adoption. These results will pave the way for effective implementation of EMS by contractors in Egypt. The paper also discusses integrating sustainable construction principals with EMS. This integration should result in environmental, social, as well as economical benefits.
In most countries governments and public communities are giving attention to environmental issues . This attention is creating pressures on businesses to introduce environmental perspective into their policies and practices  and . The environmental movement is very clear in the construction industry of the industrialized countries. “However, sustainability is still a relatively new concept for the construction industry in the developing world, and it is not yet receiving sufficient attention”  and . Environmental aspects in developing countries are often marginalized as they are faced with more pressing problems, as well as lack of financial resources, and legal and administrative systems to formulate and monitor enforcement of regulations . On the other hand, awareness about environmental issues is increasing among the governments and general public of developing countries . The environmental impacts of construction activities are probably larger in developing countries than it is in developed countries, and the construction industry in the developing world cannot continue to neglect the environment . The construction industry is challenged to create innovative techniques, technologies and management systems to be able to satisfy the emerging requirements . The ISO 14001 offers a framework for contractors to manage their environmental impacts without compromising their corporate goals since it is a business standard that could achieve cost reductions, marketing advantage, improved relations with local authorities and community, and employee motivation . In a developing country like Egypt, the construction industry receives approximately 50% of the total investment and employs at least 9% of the Egyptian labor . However, the construction industry in Egypt is lagging behind in adopting the ISO 14001. In year 2000, the construction industry worldwide held the 5th position in the highest number of ISO 14001 certification (1035 certificates); while in Egypt only five contractors were ISO 14001 certified till the end of year 2002. Not only the ‘green’ clients can be a great obstacle for exporting local products and services, but will be also a threat in local markets. In the past few years, most of the large projects were done through partnership between Egyptian companies and foreign counterparts . In addition, several infrastructure projects are funded by international organizations that are expected to require environmental specifications, specifically ISO 14001, due to the continuous rise of global action to protect the environment  and . In a time of globalization and liberation of international trade, developing countries like Egypt need huge efforts to prepare the construction industry sector for the new business requirements of the coming era where an increasingly competitive market environment would exist. One of the constraints in front of the Egyptian construction sector is resulting from the lag of adoption of environmental management systems.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Construction projects can contribute to both economic growth and environmental degradation at the same time; therefore the construction industry must be strongly associated with sustainable development. The construction industry is challenged to create innovative techniques and management systems to be able to satisfy the emerging environmental business and regulatory requirements. Environmental Management System (EMS) is the approach the contractors need to implement to share in efforts towards attaining sustainable construction. This integrated system can achieve social, environmental, and economical benefits to contractors. The benefits of the integrated system are essential for contractors especially in developing countries that lag behind in adopting sustainable practices. However adoption of ISO 14001/EMS does not necessarily lead to improved environmental performance. Environmental management system awareness is the first step to realize real adoption and implementation of ISO 14001/EMS. The environmental management systems' awareness of the top fifty contractors was investigated from five different dimensions that are associated with one another. Those five dimensions are: (1) the dissemination of information about ISO 14001/EMS, (2) contractors' responsibilities towards the environment, (3) construction industry's global environmental trend, (4) the necessity for ISO 14001 certification, and (5) contractors' opinions of their readiness for ISO 14001 adoption. The research results revealed that there is low dissemination of information about ISO 14001/EMS among the top contractors in Egypt due to the absence of the role of local institutions in promoting these systems. In general, the ISO 9000 certified contractors have heard more about ISO 14001 than the non-ISO certified contractors due to the role played by the ISO 9000 consultant in introducing the ISO 14001 standard. Although all of the non-ISO 14001 certified contractors consider that the construction industry has negative impacts on the environment, nevertheless their awareness of the contractor's role in mitigating the environmental impacts is weak. The majority of the contractors selected the two extremes: contractors have no responsibility in decreasing this impact and contractors' responsibility only. Both selections indicate that most of the contractors don't comprehend the environmental impacts along the complete cycle of the structure and underestimate their power over manufacturers/suppliers. The non-ISO 14001 certified contractors have a reactive rather than a proactive approach in building their environmental awareness and keeping up-to-date with the international trends in the construction industry. Even though they affirm the necessity for ISO 14001 adoption, but still no action was taken to improve their environmental awareness and their readiness for ISO 14001 implementation. Half the contractors claim they are ready to implement ISO 14001/EMS, but their justifications are based on impressions rather than accurately collected and analyzed facts. Almost all of the top obstacles selected by the non-ISO 14001 certified contractors are related to lack of adequate knowledge about ISO 14001 benefits. The top five reasons that encouraged ISO 14001 certified contractors to begin ISO 14001 certification and the two other groups circled around increasing competitiveness and entering wider markets; which have successfully been attained by the ISO 14001 certified contractors. The non-ISO 14001 certified contractors have high potentials to be motivated for ISO 14001 adoption. Next to the market demands, the government and trade unions can be main push factors for contractors to adopt environmental management practices or ISO 14001; specifically, The Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Ministry of Industry and Technology, and Ministry of Housing, Utilities, and Urban Communities. Their role could cover: spreading environmental awareness, putting strict environmental laws along with continuous monitoring, require environmental obligations in tenders they offer, formulate best-of-practice guidelines for the construction industry, and incentives for contractors that follow good environmental practices.