محرک ها ، موانع و مشوق های پیاده سازی سیستم های مدیریت زیست محیطی در صنایع غذایی : مورد لبنان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6474||2010||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 18, Issue 3, February 2010, Pages 200–209
The shift in policy towards prevention and towards making producers responsible for the pollution they cause has lead corporations to limit environmental liabilities through the improvement of environmental performance. The implementation of an Environmental Management System integrates the precautionary and polluter pays principles into a firm's operations and demonstrates commitment to sustainable development. This research aims at assessing the factors influencing the implementation of ISO 14001 Environmental Management System in developing countries taking the Food Industry in Lebanon as a case example. For this purpose, primary data were collected using a field survey questionnaire that was administered to a representative sample of facilities. The results revealed that the food industry is generally more concerned with safety and quality issues rather than environmental issues. Following international food sector trend, improving environmental performance and enhancing company image are the most salient drivers to adopt ISO 14001. The lack of government support and stakeholder demand as well as the fact that ISO 14001 is not a legal requirement constitute the most salient factors hindering the adoption of the standard. Economical and organizational factors are the most significant incentives required to motivate the food industry to adopt ISO 14001. The industry is less likely to voluntarily consider adopting ISO 14001 before acquiring a quality management certification or until ISO 14001 certification gain more recognition in the international food sector. The study defines the foundations for developing strategies, policy reforms and incentive schemes to reduce the barriers of implementing ISO 14001.
The evolution of a harmonized voluntary Environmental Management System (EMS) is being driven by international market forces, regulatory shifts, demand for quality management and public awareness. The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations in 1986 to minimize non-tariff barriers to trade and the 1992 Rio Earth Summit which emphasized commitment to environmental quality have stimulated the development of the EMS . The ISO 14001 process standard is one of several structures within which a facility may develop an EMS. The main purpose of the EMS is to organize environmental work in such a way that an organization's environmental performance improves continuously . It allows organizations to be systematic in the evaluation of their processes and activities with regard to interaction with the environment. Hence, the EMS controls these activities and ensures that established objectives and targets are being met. It follows the Deming's well known Quality Management approach of “Plan, Do, Check and Act”. ISO 14001 is a process standard and accordingly it specifies the characteristics of the components of a management system. It requires that adopting organizations create an environmental policy, set objectives and targets, implement a program to achieve those objectives, monitor and measure the program's effectiveness, correct problems, and conduct reviews aimed at improving the EMS. As such, the EMS is a tool that allows the continual improvement of the environmental behavior and performance , ,  and . Since the introduction of the ISO 14000 series in 1996, companies seeking the certification have been increasing worldwide. It is anticipated that registration with ISO 14001 will become a norm rather than an exception. Nonetheless, the adoption of the standard in developing countries has been slow as compared to developed countries. Table 1 presents the total number of ISO 14001 certified firms in selected countries. Evidently, firms from developing countries and transitional economies of Central and Eastern Europe account for an insignificant proportion. Latin America, Africa and the Middle East together account for less than 3% of ISO 14001 certified enterprises worldwide. The main motivations, benefits, incentives and challenges for acquiring ISO 14001 vary with location with no explicit prioritization (Table 2). This may be attributed to the several independent variables that influence decisions and priorities whereby the demands for acquiring the certification are fundamentally market driven particularly in industrialized countries , ,  and . Many firms in Asia are adopting the ISO 14001 standard foreseeing that their European-based customers will require it. Globally, the trend of certified companies refusing to do business with non-certified companies is increasing. Thus, exporters in developing countries will face more pressure from their trading partners in industrialized countries to implement an environmental management system in compliance with ISO 14001. While the adoption of ISO 9000 quality management standards has become a requirement for industries in many sectors globally, ISO 14001 EMS standard may become a necessary condition of international trade. Small to medium-size enterprises (SMEs) in both developed and developing countries may face serious constraints in setting up and maintaining an EMS although they have a significant cumulative impact on the environment. SMEs account for an estimated 90% of the world's economic activity . While several SME surveys and case studies have been conducted in Europe, relatively few studies have been carried out in developing countries. Generally, SMEs are often slow to respond to the challenge of improving their environmental performance due to the lack of financial and technical resources ,  and . Hence, it is essential to identify effective and realistic incentives to encourage SMEs primarily in developing countries to implement environmental management systems. Building an understanding of the constraints to implementing and certifying to ISO 14001, especially SMEs in developing countries, is necessary. The ISO 9001 quality management standards and 14001 environmental quality management standards are among the ISO's most widely known standards. While there are several studies worldwide with regard to ISO 9001, studies related to the implementation of ISO 14001 are scanty particularly in developing countries. In Lebanon, research studies related to the implementation of international voluntary standards among the industrial sector have so far focused on quality management systems. Invariably studies focused on analyzing the benefits of adopting such systems ,  and . Studies related to ISO 14001 EMS are still lacking, incomprehensive and scattered  and . Although not mandatory and not related to the existing national policies, few industries have voluntarily acquired the ISO 14001 certification . Similarly, few attempts were made to streamline voluntary EMS among the industrial sector . With the establishment of the “Euro-Mediterranean free trade area” by the year 2010 and Lebanon's undergoing accession to the Euro-Med Association Agreement and the WTO, more business opportunities will likely emerge. Yet, more competition and challenge will face the industrial sector to comply with the requirements of these agreements, particularly with regard to environmental protection . Therefore, the sector needs to react quickly to these dynamic changes in the global market demands through promoting ISO 14001 EMS certification. The certification will assist the sector to overcome free trade barriers, maintain a viable relationship with the European Union market (one of Lebanon's major trading partners), demonstrate environmental commitment, and gain trade advantage over its competitors in the region. Given that quality management standards are a priority to industries, particularly the food sector, promoting ISO 14001 will present a major challenge. Despite that ISO 14001 EMS could be implemented by any organization whether manufacturing, service provider or commercial, in addition to the existence of more environmentally polluting industries, the rational behind the selection of the food sector is based on the following: • It is the largest industrial sector in the country and has the highest permanent workforce. • Food products are one of the top industrial exports. • This research is conducted in parallel with an ongoing assistance program intended to support the food sector to acquire different ISO certifications. • Food companies are well known to be influenced by public perception associating food quality with environmental quality . • Even though, the majority of food industries are SMEs, the cumulative impact as a result of the large number of food industries is expected to be high. The hypotheses of the study are that (1) industries' motivation to market pressures (customers demand and export to foreign countries) and economical interest are positively associated with the adoption of ISO 14001 and that (2) financial constraints, lack of government support and knowledge are negatively associated with the industries adoption of the ISO 14001 standard. Accordingly, the specific objectives of this research include: • Investigating the drivers, barriers and incentives to implement a voluntary EMS following ISO 14001 standards in the Lebanese Industrial sector taking the food industry as a case example. • Exploring the relationship between the various influences and the actions related to environmental activities and practices within the firm. • Suggesting appropriate measures/solutions to overcome the potential barriers and challenges of implementing an EMS in the Lebanese industries.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The certification to ISO 14001 EMS is perceived as a tool to overcome international trade barriers more than enhancing competitiveness in the national Lebanese market. Food industries are less likely to voluntarily consider adopting ISO 14001 EMS before acquiring a quality management certification or until the ISO 14001 certification gain more popularity among the international food sector. Hence, policy makers and regulatory agencies should take a leading role in persuading industries to converge to voluntary environmental standards. Regulatory enforcement should be encouraged (i.e. penalties, fines, inspections, etc.) coupled with appropriate financial incentives such as low interest loans, tax deductions on environmental friendly equipments and subsidizing part of the ISO 14001 certification cost. The government should develop an environmental funding program in cooperation with micro-finance institutions and international funding organizations. Professional training and innovative diffusion principles such as pilot trials to disseminate success stories should be promoted. The major challenges that impede the implementation of the aforementioned strategies include but are not limited to: ▪ Outdated legislation which needs overall review. ▪ Lack of technical expertise and trained staff that requires scientific and legal competence. ▪ Lack of compliance policies that assist in implementing relevant laws and regulations. ▪ Paucity of economic resources and the fact that environmental issues are frequently low on the list of priorities as a result of the severe social, political, and economic problems that face most developing countries and Lebanon is no exception.