برداشت های مدیریتی از عوامل مؤثر بر مدیریت فن آوری در آفریقای جنوبی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13275||2003||17 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technovation, Volume 23, Issue 9, September 2003, Pages 719–735
A challenge for developing countries is to become part of the global economy. Their economic well being is dependent on their ability to attain the levels of technological development which could make them globally competitive. Infrastructural and educational problems pose immediate barriers which should be addressed as these countries embark on projects to enhance their technological base. The technology selected should be appropriate for the country’s level of development and expertise. The implementation of that technology will place a new set of demands on managers and workers. This paper describes an investigation of perceptions of technology management in South Africa, a country which is developed in certain areas, but which remains desperately poor in other respects. South Africa’s politics and history have always confronted managers with unique demands. The paper examines the perceptions of 132 South African managers regarding technology management by studying the relationship between the importance of different factors in managing new technology, and the extent to which a manager can control them. An importance-control grid framework is used to isolate individual parameters and to assess these in relation to the complexity of a manager’s environment. The research highlights imbalances between importance and control, and suggests reasons therefor. Some broader implications for managers are also discussed.
The role of technology in the advancement of developing countries (DCs) is complex and controversial. There is wide acceptance that technological knowledge and competence are essential for global competitiveness (Barbosa and Vaidya, 1997 and Husain and Sushil, 1997), but forces promoting global integration may conflict with creating and sustaining local autonomy. This struggle is not against globalisation; rather, efforts must be made to establish the terms under which participation in globalisation can take place (Marcus, 1992). A more sanguine view of the dominant and irreversible role of technology in DC development is taken by Kahn (1995: 139) who maintains, “it is an article of faith that the application of science and of industrial organisation would bring untold material benefits to the modern world”. Kuper (1999: 210) provides further support “as civilisation advances, it will impose sacrifices. There is no guarantee that it will promote individual happiness or advance the common good ... but the capital of humanity increases”. The technological world is characterised by rapid changes in resource utilisation, increasing levels of decision complexity and intense competition (Sharif, 1997). Reduced development cycles and the pace of technological change place greater urgency on the need to adopt new technology if DCs are to begin to compete globally (Jegathesan et al., 1997), although DCs will not find it easy to beat the hard-won technological advantage of the developed world. The extent to which DCs participate in the global economy will therefore depend on their ability to invest in and utilise technology. The management of knowledge and technical information, equipment and software comprising the physical technology itself (Wang, 1997) are areas of interest in technology transfer (TT) in general. In DCs other issues assume even greater importance, typically including human resources, skills and training, unique organisational issues, and “lore” (Adjibolosoo, 1994). This paper describes part of a broader study into the management of technology in DCs. The approach uses an importance-control grid to reflect the perceptions of a sample of South African managers regarding the management of technology. The following section reviews some of the literature relating to technology in DCs. The sample and the importance-control grid are then described, and the results are analysed and their implications are discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper a study is described of South African managers’ current perceptions of managing technology, and what they envisage for the future. The most significant issues in TT relate to technology and operations strategy, where assimilation of technology must yield more and improved products. Limited financial resources will restrain technological adoption and expansion. A poorly educated and inadequately trained workforce, characterised by low productivity, will impose further severe constraints. Knowledge management is in its infancy, and will require concerted efforts by managers to create appropriate support frameworks before knowledge can play its rightful role in achieving competitive advantage. Operations and maintenance staff will be challenged to handle new technology with existing systems and procedures. Organisations must take the initiative to use suppliers and networks for a full range of benefits to accrue from new technologies. With South Africa’s history it is perhaps not surprising that managers are divided on the role of the government and politics in business. Those who mistrust political motives seem resigned to accept that the political agenda will not go away. The findings in this study suggest areas for further research into TT in DCs. The high importance scores for maintenance support Leonard-Barton’s (1995) assertion that maintenance is one of the most problematic issues in technology management. The results of this study provide a basis for more detailed investigation of the relationship between the maintenance function and TT, particularly as skills and knowledge deficiencies in DCs have a significant impact on maintenance policies and practice. The role of technology in strategic decisions is still ill defined in South Africa, but global forces are likely to pressurise managers to introduce new technologies wherever possible. For the foreseeable future, South Africa will import technology with limited local technical and operational input. This is to be expected in a developing country where research and innovation initiatives are limited, and whose economy is still greatly dependent on technical expertise from abroad.