فواید مرتبط با گواهینامه ایزو 14001 برای شرکت های ساخت و ساز: مورد ترکیه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6037||2009||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 17, Issue 5, March 2009, Pages 559–569
Construction firms all over the world are increasingly seeking to obtain ISO 14001. The rapid growth in the number of ISO 14001 applications in Turkey and the share from the construction sector in this number, as a leading sector, is rather striking. This paper, using a structured questionnaire survey, investigates whether there is any dependence or relation between construction firms characteristics and having ISO 14001 certification and any difference in the perceptions related to ISO 14001 by considering both firm characteristics and two different groups as certified and non-certified firms. Additionally, it examines the perceived benefits of having ISO 14001 for certified construction firms. According to the results of analysis, although there is not any difference in perceptions on ISO 14001 certification in terms of firm characteristics and being as certified and non-certified and their both positive opinions about ISO 14001 certification. There is a relation between firms characteristics and having ISO 14001 certification. ISO 14001 certification contributes to construction firms not only in terms of environmental benefits but also with corporate management and marketing effects, thus verifying that the ISO 14001 has a positive impact on the Turkish construction sector.
Following both the Rio Conference in 1992 and GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) negotiations, international standards have become important for succeeding and for getting access to the markets; at the same time, there has been an increase in the interest of environmental management. Such regulatory and competitive pressures have caused firms to take into consideration the environmental issues within their own production and market plans. Many firms have attempted to seek an effective environmental management system. These have led to implementation and development of the ISO 14001 standard for assessing environmental management processes. Today, all over the world, many firms are seeking ISO 14001 certification. According to statistics published by ISO, by the end of 2006, 129,199 certificates have been issued in 140 countries, an increase of 18,037 certificates since the end of 2005 when the total number was 21,225 in 138 countries . While Europe has 44.05% of regional share expressed in 2006, Far East countries have 41.24% share. The other regional shares are respectively North America 5.94%, Africa/West Asia 3.74%, Central and South America 3.37 and Australia and New Zealand 1.66%. The top 10 countries for growth in ISO 14001 certification were China (6159), Italy (2745), Spain (2505), Germany (975), Korea (938), Sweden (729), Romania (702), Turkey (505), and Switzerland (503) by 2006. In Turkey, while 918 firms were registered at the end of 2005, the number of certifications increased to 1423 at the end of 2006. This is an increase of 64.5% in one year in the number of ISO 14001 certificates in Turkey. This growth is rather striking. According to statistics published by ISO, the top five industrial sectors for ISO 14001 certifications are electrical and optical equipment (9423), construction (9095), basic metal and fabricated metal products (7521), chemicals, chemical products and fibers (5041), and machinery and equipment (4554), respectively. The share of construction certificates in industrial sectors is quite high. While 4660 firms were registered at the end of 2005, the number of certifications rose significantly to 9095 at the end of 2006. In this sector, the share all over the world has increased by 51.2% in one year . The more and more increasing interest of construction firms to obtain the ISO 14001 certificate depends on benefits associated with it. Construction, as an activity, is defined by NACE Code1 under the Group F. Under this group, there are three sub-groups: construction of buildings (F41), civil engineering (F42), and specialized construction activities (F43). In this study, construction, the general field of activity of the surveyed firms includes all items given under the titles of all three sub-groups. While the construction sector creates and provides facilities for human activities and social development , environmental impacts of construction activities, products and services are quite significant . Construction activities, products and services may cause different types of pollution such as land deterioration, resource depletion, waste generation, air pollution, noise pollution and water pollution ,  and . The ISO 14001 offers a framework for managing construction operations for improvement of their environmental performance. In Turkey, as rapid growth in the number of ISO 14001 certifications and the share of the construction sector as a leader in this number are considered, there is a need to conduct an exploratory study on Turkish construction firms. This paper has focused on two main aims. The first is to determine whether there is any dependence or relation between construction firms characteristics and having ISO 14001 certification and also any difference in the perceptions related to ISO 14001 depending on both firm characteristics and grouped as certified and non-certified construction firms. Second one is to examine the perceived benefits gained from obtaining ISO 14001 for certified construction firms. The contribution expected from this study is to examine relation between construction firm characteristics and having ISO 14001 certification and the benefits associated with the ISO 14001 certification in the construction sector in Turkey and to compare the findings with other countries. The information on the ISO 14001 is given in the following section. Section 3 presents the theoretical background related to implement in the construction sector. Section 4 gives information about the significance of ISO 14001 for construction sector in Turkey. Section 5 contains a survey study of Turkish construction firms. This section is divided into three parts. In the first part, the structure of the survey is determined. In the second part, findings in relation with the analysis are given in six sub-divisions. The third part provides a general evaluation of the findings, including comparison with experiences of other countries. Section 6 contains the conclusions and policy recommendations.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The number of certified firms with ISO 14001 in Turkey is low when compared to other countries, particularly European and Asian countries. An increase in this number can provide a reduction of potential negative impacts from construction investments to the environment as an important area in Turkey and find solutions for construction wastes, facilitate compliance with legal arrangements regarding the environment, provide a competitive edge for Turkish firms operating internationally and serve as a guarantee for the protection of the environment. Therefore, the difficulties encountered by the certified firms in obtaining ISO 14001 should be removed; in particular, the problems of lack of information and qualified personnel who should be educated on the concept of EMS and its technical details. Important roles should be delegated to government authorities, trade associations, companies and certification bodies in order to overcome the lack of information. These organizations may arrange training courses regarding the implementation of the EMS in the construction sector and case studies can be reviewed in these courses. The high operation cost which is indicated as the most significant adversity in the implementation of IS0 14001 should be analyzed in detail. A systematic analysis of the firms implementing EMS within the Turkish construction sector may provide an evaluation of the cost-benefit issue in an open manner. In this study, the behavior of the top category firms within the Turkish construction sector, which operate in the international markets regarding ISO 14001, has been analyzed. However, studies should be conducted within the medium and small-scale firms. The explanation of the importance and benefits of EMS support to implement this system, as well as to provide loan facilities in order to establish the system can be implemented for the medium- and small-scale firms. In the application of construction projects, the effective and common application of EMS, particularly in developing countries, may reduce environmental problems in construction activities. In the global market, an increase in the number of firms having EMS will both reduce environmental impact and develop the potential of awarding contracts to the construction firms from underdeveloped and/or developing countries.