مخاطرات ارگونومیک فیزیکی در ساخت تونل بزرگراه: بررسی اجمالی از ساخت و ساز برنامه بهداشت حرفه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|8120||2011||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied Ergonomics, Volume 42, Issue 5, July 2011, Pages 665–671
This report provides an overview of physical ergonomic exposures in highway construction work across trades and major operations. For each operation, the observational method “PATH” (Posture, Activity, Tools and Handling) was used to estimate the percentage of time that workers spent in specific tasks and with exposure to awkward postures and load handling. The observations were carried out on 73 different days, typically for about 4 h per day, covering 120 construction workers in 5 different trades: laborers, carpenters, ironworkers, plasterers, and tilers. Non-neutral trunk postures (forward or sideways flexion or twisting) were frequently observed, representing over 40% of observations for all trades except laborers (28%). Kneeling and squatting were common in all operations, especially tiling and underground utility relocation work. Handling loads was frequent, especially for plasterers and tilers, with a range of load weights but most often under 15 pounds. The results of this study provide quantitative evidence that workers in highway tunnel construction operations are exposed to ergonomic factors known to present significant health hazards. Numerous opportunities exist for the development and implementation of ergonomic interventions to protect the health and safety of construction workers.
Construction workers are exposed to a variety of ergonomic hazards, including awkward postures, heavy lifting, forceful exertions, vibrations, and repetitive motions (Schneider and Susi, 1994 and Hartmann and Fleischer, 2005). They also experience an elevated risk of musculoskeletal disorders (Latza et al., 2000, O’Reilly et al., 2000, Sandmark et al., 2000, Schneider, 2001, Goldsheyder et al., 2002, Holmstrom and Engholm, 2003 and Forde et al., 2005). Much of the work performed in construction is non-routinized (Buchholz et al., 1996). This is due both to the dynamic nature of construction work itself and the changing external environment, which may impact the content and frequency distribution of job tasks across individuals and over time (Paquet et al., 2005). The dynamic nature of construction work also makes it difficult to measure ergonomic exposures systematically. A few investigators have used observational methods to determine the distribution of ergonomic exposures in specific construction trades or tasks (Wickstrom et al., 1985, Kivi and Mattila, 1991, Bhattacharya et al., 1997 and Jensen and Eenberg, 2000). However, there have been few or no large-scale comparisons of exposure to physical ergonomic hazards among different trades or stages of the construction process. The objective of this report is to provide an overview of ergonomic exposures in highway construction work and to describe the frequency of known health hazards by the major trades and operations involved.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study of a large highway tunnel construction project, multiple ergonomic exposures were observed. The most frequent exposures were non-neutral trunk postures and, in some operations, kneeling and squatting. These exposures have already been demonstrated to represent important risk of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly affecting the back and knees (Jensen and Mikkelsen, 2000, National Research Council, 2001 and Manninen et al., 2002). Each construction trade presents different ergonomic challenges. Therefore, obtaining trade and operation-specific information on tools, exposures, worker tasks, and work conditions is an important first step in: 1) comparing risks, 2) identifying priorities for reduction of hazardous ergonomic exposures, and 3) determining the most appropriate intervention measures for each trade.