پروفایل گیرندگان و غیر گیرندگان تجارت الکترونیکی در شرکت های خدمات حرفه ای کوچک و متوسط
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|15115||2005||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Australasian Marketing Journal (AMJ), Volume 13, Issue 1, 2005, Pages 36–48
The new spatial possibilities of Internet-based technologies provide a powerful route to innovative marketing strategies. Consequently, firms of all sizes are finding it necessary to establish a Web presence to increase their ability to survive in an increasingly dynamic and competitive business environment. This study reports on the differences between adopters and non-adopters of electronic commerce in SME professional service firms in New Zealand. Six factors relating to a firm's external/internal environment were found to underpin adoption. These are: response to technological environment / opportunities afforded by technology; negative attitudes or perceived barriers/impediments to electronic commerce; electronic commerce capability; response to new technology/innovation; customer orientation; and sensitivity to competitive/customer environments. T-tests reveal differences between adopters and non-adopters, and logistic regression is used to assess the extent to which these six factors actually predict electronic commerce adoption.
The rise of the information economy and the challenges of the global market have secured a strategic place in all firms for electronic commerce (hereafter referred to as EC). More than just an Internet façade, EC has the potential to streamline central organisational policies and procedures. In fact, to remain competitive in global markets, EC has become imperative (Maguire et al.,2001, p.1) and encompasses activities such as electronic data interchange, having a Web site that is linked with key business processes, and capabilities to buy online(European Commission, 1998; Watson et al., 2000; Reedy et al., 2000; Turban et al., 2000; and Fillis et al., 2004). It has been argued that competing in the new millennium without Internet-enabled capabilities will be similar to “trying to compete today without a sales force or a telephone” (Frank, 1997, p. 31). In this paper, EC is defined as “any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact” (European Commission, 1998). It includes business-to-consumer and business-to-business activities conducted using electronic data transmission via the Internet and/or WWW.There are many studies documenting the advantages associated with adopting Internet-enabled technologies for business purposes (e.g. Quelch and Klein, 1996; Hamill and Gregory, 1997; Burgess and Cooper, 1998; Keogh et al., 1998 Zampetakis, 2000). Despite these much-publicised advantages, recent research has shown that a large number of small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) have been slow to capitalise on this new mode of carrying out business (see for example Clark et al., 2001,2002; Smyth and Ibbotson, 2001).EC uptake in New Zealand has been particularly slow compared with some of its major trading partners, including the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia (Gray et al., 1999; Clark et al., 2003; Reed, 2003; McCole and Ramsey, 2004). This suggests that the New Zealand Government’s vision to “…be world class in embracing EC for competitive advantage” may not be going according to plan. It also suggests that the goals outlined in the New Zealand Government EC Strategy document are not being met. The aim of this paper is to understand why some New Zealand firms in the professional services industry have been slow to embrace EC activities? This question is explored in three parts. First of all the extent of EC adoption in the professional service sector is explored.Second, professional service firms that have/have not adopted the Internet for business purposes are compared on internal /external factors that are reported to underpin adoption. Third, a logistic regression is performed in order to discriminate between factors that predict adoption/non-adoption.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research has reported the extent of EC within smaller professional service firms in New Zealand, examined the differences between adopters and non adopters and developed a logistic model to find out which items drive EC adoption. Overall, the results provide evidence of a “primitive”(Chaffey et al., 2000) and “localised exploitation” (Venkatraman, 1994) of EC technology. The research found significant differences between firms that adopt and those that do not adopt EC technologies. Adopters tend to be more proactive and even more “creative” in that they are more aware of opportunities afforded by new technology (in terms of offering new service ideas).They also tend to be more customer-oriented and are more sensitive to the changes taking place in customer/competitive environments. Non-adopters harbour negative attitudes towards EC and believe that there are still many barriers hindering them from selling their goods and services online. Non-adopters are also slower in detecting changes in technologies that might affect their business. No differences were found between adopters and non adopters in term of ability to adopt (i.e. staff capabilities,financial resources and service/product fit). Negative mindsets regarding EC (such as: not trusting the technology; a belief that EC is highly risky; not being willing to change; not being aware of the benefits; and believing that there are more important things to be done) remains the biggest factor impeding adoption. This finding concurs with other studies. For example Kalakota and Robinson (2001, as cited in Simpson and Docherty, 2004, p. 320) reported that the main barrier to EC is the unwillingness of managers to be responsible for technological change. Timmers (2000, as cited in Simpson and Docherty, 2004, p. 320) suggested that ignorance surrounding technology fuels concerns about security, costs, legislation and interoperability. Further, Chappell and Feindt (2002, as cited in Sadowski et al.,2002, p. 78) reported that the valuable resources of time and effort to incorporate such telecommunications were principal barriers to the adoption of IT. On the other hand firms that are more sensitive to changes in customer/competitor environments are more likely to adopt EC than those that are not. Again, this concurs with findings from other countries. For example, according to Fink and Kazakoff (1997, as cited in Chong, 2001, p.5), SMEs are usually characterised by a high level of environmental uncertainty such as fluctuation in interest rates, reliability of supply,competition, etc., and related to this is the point that the use of IT and EC is often imposed on SMEs by major customers or suppliers. Such pressure from trading partners has been found to play a critical role in IT and EC adoption by small firms (Hart and Saunders, 1994;Iacovou et al., 1995 as cited in Chong, 2001, p.5).Iacovou et al. (1995) also stated that the competitive pressure that firms face within their particular industry from customer and competitor environment greatly influences the company’s decision to adopt IT. Adopting EC is also another way of maintaining a favourable competitive position (see Chong, 2001, p. 5 for a fuller discussion).Although largely intuitive, these results provide both academics and marketing practitioners with suggestions as to how to tackle the problem of non-adoption in professional SMEs in New Zealand. In term of the relevance to the academic community, the biggest challenge now is to find out how to change the perceived barriers/impediments (or negative beliefs/attitudes) towards EC. Examples of best practice and/or investigation into EC as a value adding resource may help alleviate this concern, and research profiling best practice is needed. In terms of the practitioner audience, the results offer insight into how one might tailor/target EC tools and software to firms who have not yet adopted it (e.g. segmenting the market in terms of various levels of concerns and/or proactive/reactive tendencies).Owner-managers must be convinced of the benefits that EC can offer and receive continued support for implementing e-business practices. New Zealand Trade and Enterprise seem to the ambassadors for this and it is imperative that they continue to promote the benefits of EC within (service) firms. The New Zealand government has already made significant efforts to help the country realise the vision“…be world class in embracing EC for competitive advantage”. Nevertheless they must continue to: raise awareness and champion EC; be informed about New Zealand's e-capability; provide help and support to those that need it; deliver cheaper and faster services to customers through the introduction of on-line services; lead by example through e-government and eprocurement; and ensure the continuing supply of skilled resources. Of course the onus for e-progress not only rests with the government. Choices about new technology and the exploitation of opportunities must be led by the private sector (see MED, 2003 for a fuller discussion). The development of EC must be led by individuals and business innovators. Adopters must continue to develop their EC capabilities and levels of sophistication. The biggest challenge that lies ahead is how to change the mindset of non-adopters and make them realise the benefits (and cost savings) that EC can deliver.