رویکرد مبتنی بر AHP برای انتخاب سیستم برنامه ریزی منابع سازمانی (ERP)
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1117||2005||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Production Economics, Volume 96, Issue 1, 18 April 2005, Pages 47–62
An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a critical investment that can significantly affect future competitiveness and performance of a company. This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting a suitable ERP system. The framework can systematically construct the objectives of ERP selection to support the business goals and strategies of an enterprise, identify the appropriate attributes, and set up a consistent evaluation standard for facilitating a group decision process. A real-world example demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed framework.
Severe market competition has dramatically transformed the business environment with the result that companies need to reduce total costs, maximize return on investment, shorten lead times, and be more responsive to customer demands. Highly dynamic markets call for effective enterprise information systems to enhance competitive advantage. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is increasingly important in modern business because of its ability to integrate the flow of material, finance, and information and to support organizational strategies (Yusuf et al., 2004, Yao and He, 2000). A successful ERP project involves managing business process change, selecting an ERP software system and a co-operative vendor, implementing this system, and examining the practicality of the new system. Owing to the complexity of the business environment, the limitations in available resources, and the diversity of ERP alternatives, ERP system selection is tedious and time consuming. However, given the considerable financial investment and potential risks and benefits, the importance of a pertinent ERP system selection cannot be overemphasized (Teltumbde, 2000). Existing ERP commercial packages cannot provide a once-for-all business model for every process of all industry. Thus, no single ERP packaged software can meet all company functionalities or all special business requirements (Sarkis and Sundarraj, 2000; Teltumbde, 2000; Hong and Kim, 2002). Therefore, companies must choose a flexible ERP system and a co-operative vendor that is responsive to customer needs. All too often there is no systematic evaluation framework in place when most companies evaluate ERP systems. In addition, “ERP vendor hype” further complicates the selection process. Decision makers frequently adopt the common ERP evaluation criteria as the measures without developing tailor-made objectives and clear requirements that echo the company characteristics, its position in its competitive environment, and its corporate strategy. The result is an inevitable delay of ERP implementation and under-performance of the system. Hence, an ERP system selection framework is extremely critical in assisting executives to evaluate from the perspective of company strategies. Since the business environment is characterized by high uncertainty, the process of ERP system assessment involves numerous problems. Kumar et al. (2002) emphasized that installing an ERP system is much more than having another information technology tool; it is a decision on how to shape the organizational business. Motwani et al. (2002) emphasized that ERP adoption involves initiating appropriate business process changes as well as information technology changes to significantly enhance performance, quality, costs, flexibility, and responsiveness. However, many companies install their ERP systems hurriedly without fully understanding the implications for their business or the need for compatibility with overall organizational goals and strategies (Hicks and Stecke, 1995). The result of this hasty approach is failed projects or weak systems whose logic conflicts with organizational goals. This study proposes a comprehensive ERP system selection framework in which the objective hierarchy is constructed and the appropriate attributes are specified to provide detailed guidance for ERP system evaluation. The proposed methodology also ensures that the evaluation process is aligned with the competitive strategies and goals of the enterprise. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method (Saaty, 1980) is applied for dealing with the ambiguities involved in the assessment of ERP alternatives and relative importance weightings of attributes. An empirical case in Taiwan is described to demonstrate the practical viability of the proposed method.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting a suitable ERP system based on an AHP-based decision analysis process. The proposed procedure allows a company to identify the elements of ERP system selection and formulate the fundamental-objective hierarchy and means-objective network. The pertinent attributes for evaluating a variety of ERP systems and vendors can be derived according to the structure of objectives. The proposed comprehensive ERP system selection framework has the following advantages: (1) It ensures that the structure of objectives is consistent with corporate goals and strategies. The project team can understand the relationships among different objectives and assess their influence by modeling them to the hierarchical and network structures. (2) The project team can decompose the complex ERP selection problem into simpler and more logical judgments of the attributes. Particularly, knowledge of structure of objectives can help the project team to identify the company requirements and develop appropriate system specifications. These objectives also indicate how outcomes should be measured and what key points should be considered in the decision process. (3) The approach is flexible enough to incorporate extra attributes or decision makers in the evaluation. Notably, the proposed framework can accelerate the reaching of consensus among multiple decision makers. (4)The approach systematically assesses corporate attributes and guidance based on the company goals and strategic development. It can not only reduce costs during the selection phase, but also mitigate the resistance and invisible costs in the implementation stage.