دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 18018
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اطلاعات و فناوری ارتباطات، عدم تقارن راهبردی و امنیت ملی

عنوان انگلیسی
Information and communications technologies, strategic asymmetry and national security
کد مقاله سال انتشار تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی
18018 2005 18 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید
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منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Journal of International Management, Volume 11, Issue 4, December 2005, Pages 563–580

ترجمه کلمات کلیدی
عدم تقارن استراتژیک - فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات - امنیت ملی - موسسات - حملات سایبر
کلمات کلیدی انگلیسی
Strategic asymmetry,Information and communication technologies, National security,Institutions,Cyber attacks
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله اطلاعات و فناوری ارتباطات، عدم تقارن راهبردی و امنیت ملی

چکیده انگلیسی

In the history of warfare, there are a number of examples of strategic uses of asymmetric technologies. Consistent with history and theory, individuals, organizations and nations have spotted opportunities to employ information and communications technologies to gain and exploit asymmetric advantages and to counter asymmetric weaknesses. This article discusses various asymmetries associated with institutions, nations and organizations that influence the ICT-national security nexus. Regulative, normative and cognitive institutions in a country provide various mechanisms that affect the nature of positive and negative asymmetries. Nations and organizations also differ in terms of their capability to assimilate ICT tools to gain positive asymmetries and deal with vulnerabilities of negative asymmetries. Integrative approaches that combine policy and technological measures at various levels are likely to make the world more secure.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Information and communications technologies (ICTs) play a critical role in the national security game (e.g., English, 2005, Metz, 2001 and Zhou, 2005). The vulnerability to threat as well as the capability to strategically deploy ICTs vary across entities. The characteristics of organizations, nations and institutions superimpose in a unique interaction with ICTs' nature that influence the ICT-security nexus. The focus of this paper is on asymmetry (see Table 1 for definitions of terms) associated with ICTs from the perspective of national security. Asymmetry created by ICTs (more broadly: technologies) is among six forms of asymmetry identified by Metz and Johnson (2001). Nations and organizations can exploit asymmetric advantages by strategically employing ICTs in war against enemies (e.g., cyber attacks) as well as by using ICTs in facilitating other functions contributing to attack and defense such as communications, detection of threats from enemies, gathering intelligence, etc. The Internet as well as non-Internet ICTs such as wireless telephony, satellite TV, satellite phones and supercomputers can be employed in the management of asymmetries Thefocusofthispaperisonasymmetry(see Table 1 fordefinitionsofterms)associatedwithICTs from the perspective of national security. Asymmetry created by ICTs (more broadly: technologies) is among six forms of asymmetry identified by Metz and Johnson (2001) . Nations and organizations can exploit asymmetric advantages by strategically employing ICTs in war against enemies (e.g., cyber attacks) as well as by using ICTs in facilitating other functions contributing to attack and defense such as communications, detection of threats from enemies, gathering intelligence, etc. The Internet as well as non-Internet ICTs such as wireless telephony, satellite TV, satellite phones and supercomputers can be employed in the management of asymmetries (see Table 2 ). In the history of warfare, there are several examples 1 of strategic uses of asymmetric technologies ( Metz, 2001 ) that have provided b a decisive advantage over an opponent in combat Q ( Rosenberger, 2005 ). Consistent with history and theory, organizations and nations have spotted opportunities to employ ICTs to gain and exploit asymmetric advantages and to counter asymmetric weaknesses. For instance, in the Iraq war, powerful ICT tools such as Analyst’s Notebook allowed U.S. investigators to convert huge amount of data into actionable intelligence. The intelligence helped to track the wanted Iraqis. Analyst’s Notebook also helped to trace the creator of b love bug Q computer virus of 2000 ( Yousafzai and Hirsh, 2004 ). U.S. military and intelligence officials are using the same technology to track Osama Bin Laden’s network. Bin Laden’s network, on the other hand, has been reportedly using symmetric and asymmetric technologies 2 including satellite phones, the Internet and advanced encryption methods to recruit followers, raise money, formulate plans and operations and to communicate securely (see Box 1 ). The objective of this paper is to explore the nature of ICT-related asymmetries of organizations, nations and individuals that influence national security. The remainder of the paper is structured as follows: The next section discusses some positive and negative asymmetries that ICT tools can create. Then, we develop some propositions on institutional and organizational factors linked with positive and negative asymmetries. Finally, we provide managerial and policy implications and suggest directions for future research.

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هزینه ترجمه مقاله توسط مترجمان با تجربه، طبق جدول زیر محاسبه می شود:

شرح تعرفه ترجمه زمان تحویل جمع هزینه
ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت عادی هر کلمه 70 تومان 13 روز بعد از پرداخت 594,790 تومان
ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت فوری هر کلمه 140 تومان 7 روز بعد از پرداخت 1,189,580 تومان
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.