نقش وابستگی های درونی در پیاده سازی ERP : تجزیه و تحلیل تجربی از عوامل مهمی که باعث به حداقل رساندن زمان سپری شده می شوند
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13229||2010||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Information & Management, Volume 47, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 87–95
We analyzed the role played by different module types that influence the time spent on an ERP implementation. By using the concept of interdependences together with organizational integration theory, we distinguished between business-support and value-chain modules and affirmed that their respective implementation times would differ. We also highlighted the existence of time-savings and facilitator mechanisms that could reduce the total elapsed time for an ERP implementation with these module types. We found empirical support for our hypotheses by using data from 141 organizations and using econometric duration models. Through contextual, organizational, and project specific controls, our results lead us to the conclusion that value-chain modules take longer than business-support modules to implement. Furthermore, we found empirical evidence of time-savings and facilitator mechanisms in the ERP implementation process.
Understanding the factors influencing ERP implementation time is still a managerial problem. In 2003, the Hackett Group reported time overruns ranging from 24 to 100 percent for IT projects. Focusing on ERP projects, the literature has reported that ERP implementations generally take longer than expected . In particular, 90 percent of ERP projects finish late and, on average, the real time spent on each ERP implementation was four times that estimated originally. Moreover, time overruns resulted in additional costs until completion since the success of the implementation is usually linked to on-time completion . Based on the idea that an ERP implementation could be considered a mechanism for achieving organizational integration across departments, we explored complementary explanations of why some ERP implementations take more time than others. Our work was based on three main arguments: (1) implementation of value-chain modules (e.g., production or distribution) requires more time than business-support modules (e.g., accounting or human resource management); (2) characteristics of value-chain modules, particularly their high interdependence, allow time savings during implementation; (3) business-support modules provide integration mechanisms that facilitate a reduction of the time needed for ERP implementation. Based on duration models, we obtained empirical support for our theoretical arguments. We collected data from 141 organizations, for the period 2004–2006, through personal interviews with managers involved in ERP implementation. This allowed us to focus on the detail of the ERP implementation phases and, thus clearly determine the time to complete the ERP project. In addition to the number and type of modules implemented, we controlled for contextual and organizational factors, as well as for particular ERP project specifics.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of our study was to investigate the influence of the type of ERP modules used on the time required to achieve organizational integration via ERP implementation. Past research has suggested that the greater the number of modules, the longer the elapsed time. However, the effects on the ERP implementation vary considerably from module to module. Our aim was to explore this. The significance of our results leads us to three conclusions. 1. As Barki and Pinsonneault stated, the integration of value- chain modules requires more time than business-support modules. 2. The concave relationship between elapsed time and the implementation of value-chain modules is proof of the presence of time savings during the integration of value-chains. 3. Business-support units act as facilitators for ERP implementa- tion. However, their contribution to a reduction in elapsed time decreases asthenumberofbusiness-supportmodulesexceedsa threshold. We demonstrated that higher complexity and size of ERP implementations has a greater effect on time. However, different factors affect this result. In particular, not all types of modulesrequire the same implementation time. The inverse U-shape of the value-chain modulescurve suggested that there were time savings during the implementation process. Moreover, complex inter- dependences in value-chain units, while creating the need for communication, control, and information coordination, also provide learning opportunities. Previous results confirmed that companies lose time-saving opportunities by not incorporating their know-how when inte- grating business-support units. Value-chain modules should accrue specific benefits as a result of being implemented jointly with business-support modules. The potential for a reduction in elapsed time from the linking of value-chain modules can lead to reductions in the time taken in ERP implementation. Our study was not, of course, exempt from limitations. The main shortcoming was its generalizability. However, our observa- tions were collected from a broad range of organizations, industries, and ERP projects. Also, though the firms were located in Spain, the presence of multinational firms from a wide range of countries compensated for this weakness. Finally, though our results shed light on the ERP implementation process, we obtained evidence consistent with previous studies. Therefore, it would seem reasonable to regard our sample as representative of a wide population of ERP implementers. Our results might suffer from a bias due to its concentration on a Latin culture or Mediterranean economy; studies in one country may not apply in other countries. However, the majority of the sample firms have transnational cultures and values, because they have been developing their business in a Western economy as part of the European Union for decades. Althoughweincludedarelativelywiderangeofcontrolvariables, alternative variables could affect the analysis. In particular, the inclusion of variables, such as institutional or corporate governance elements, could increase the richness of the analysis