بخش بندی و استخراج منافع کاربران ERP با استفاده از روش مجموعه ای راف
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 38, Issue 6, June 2011, Pages 6940–6948
Enterprise Resource Management (ERP) systems are viewed as a promising and powerful information technology solution for dealing with the impact of competition advancements and enabling corporations to improve productivity and to operate more efficiently. Although implementations of ERP are complex and costly, corporations may actively adopt and engage in such ERP implementations if perceived benefits exceed perceived risks and costs. A number of studies have contributed to discussion of important factors related to ERP introduction or implementation. Other studies have listed various potential benefits which may be obtained when implementing ERP systems. However, few studies attempt to deepen the analyses of the ERP users’ perceived benefits in order to gain meaningful findings for promoting ERP implementations. Typically, elements of a set of ERP benefits do not necessarily share the same importance. Moreover, a given ERP benefit may be accorded a variety of very different levels of importance by different corporations. This paper attempts to segment the ERP users into two subgroups according to the notion of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory, and further, to uncover imperative perceived benefits for distinct subgroups of ERP users employing the rough set theory. The results of this study should provide better understanding and knowledge of strategic implications for both ERP system adopters and vendors, and thus advance the scope of ERP implementations.
Enterprise Resource Management (ERP) systems are viewed as promising and powerful information technology solutions that enable corporations to improve productivity and to operate more efficiently. According to Su and Yang (2010), the ERP system is a combination of business processes and information technology, constituting an integrated enterprise computing system designed to automate the flow of material, information, and financial resources among all functions within an enterprise on a common database. Moreover, ERP systems can assist corporations in automating and integrating corporate cross-functions such as inventory control, procurement, distribution, finance, and project management (Tarn, Yen, & Beaumont, 2002). In order to meet the impact of advancements in such competitive areas as shorter lead-time, higher quality, competitive prices, and improved customer service, corporations are increasingly interested in adopting ERP systems. Due to competitive pressures resulting from globalization, corporations increasingly need more effective total enterprise solutions like the ERP system. The ERP system enjoys its present popularity because of its apparent capacity to improve operational efficiency and business efficacy (Chou & Chang, 2008). Aydin and Tunali (2007) suggest that the ERP system is evolving and integrating many advanced applications, including Supply Chain Management (SCM), Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and E-Procurement. Today’s ERP systems integrate the main business and management processes within and beyond a firm’s boundary, as well as supporting most commercial activities, including purchasing, sales, finance, human resources, and manufacturing resource planning (MRP) for modern corporations (Shiau, Hsu, & Wang, 2009). The report of Exact Software. (2005) notes that the evolution of the ERP system, which rose in the 1990’s from its beginning as a tool for materials planning, and has grown over the years, can be divided into three differently-featured phases: (1) the traditional ERP phase (1990’s) which was characterized primarily by the capability to service materials planning, order entry, distribution, general ledger, accounting, and shop floor control; (2) the extended ERP phase (2000–2004), in which it expanded to handle such issues as scheduling, forecasting, capacity planning, e-commerce, warehousing, and logistics; and (3) the ERP II phase (from 2005) which offers further advanced solutions, covering project management, knowledge management, workflow management, SCM, CRM, human resource management, portal capability, and integrated financials. However, it must be noted that ERP implementations are complex and costly, even though advanced ERP systems have evolved several highly favorable features such as: more wide intensive and extensive coverage; better flexibility in handling functions; and web-centric application. Cebeci (2009) remarks that ERP implementations are the most difficult investment projects because of their complexity, high cost and adaptation risks. Ge and VoB (2009) point out that the successful implementation rate is still low, and many corporations have not achieved full potential benefits from ERP systems. Saatcıoglu (2007) comments that ERP systems, extremely complex pieces of software, are costly, and ERP implementations require large investments of money, time and expertise. Su and Yang (2010) point out that, nevertheless, because the potential ERP benefits are large, many corporations are willing to undertake the difficult process of introducing these expensive and risky ERP systems. Thus, although ERP implementations are complex and costly, corporations may actively adopt and engage in ERP implementations if perceived benefits exceed perceived risks and costs. In other words, corporations are motivated to adopt ERP systems because ERP implementation may well result in a set of attractive potential benefits. Shiau et al. (2009) note that ERP systems provide a multitude of benefits to businesses, such as: inventory reduction, data integration, and cost reduction. Ge and VoB (2009) note that an ERP system is a highly integrated enterprise information system helping us to manage all aspects of an enterprise’s business operations, including production, purchasing, engineering design, manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution, accounting, and customer service; and once the ERP systems are successfully implemented, significant benefits may be obtained in such areas as improved customer service, better production scheduling, and reduced manufacturing costs. A number of studies have discussed significant factors for ERP implementation, as well as listing various potential benefits which may result from implementing ERP systems. However, although users’ perceived benefits can, indeed, be an imperative predictor, few studies have seriously looked at ERP users’ perceived benefits. Even with high perceived risks and costs, if perceived benefits are sufficiently attractive, corporations may still actively engage in ERP implementation. Thus there is an increasing need to deepen our analyses of ERP users’ perceived benefits, in order to gain meaningful findings for promoting ERP implementation. Unfortunately, the previous literature has contented itself with listing a miscellaneous set of ERP benefits which do not necessarily share the same importance. It is evident that the importance of one ERP benefit may be evaluated quite differently by different corporations. Therefore, this paper attempts to address the issue of how to go about segmenting and mining the ERP users’ perceived benefits. To this end, segmenting methods and data mining techniques are applied in this study. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a literature review is conducted. In Section 3, research design and results are presented. Finally, based on the findings of this research, conclusions and implications for management are presented.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
ERP implementation is viewed as a crucial solution for corpora- tions aiming to meet increased competitive pressures and global- ization. A number of studies have addressed various important issues for successful ERP implementation. However, few studies devote sufficient attention to ERP users’ perceived benefits, in terms of ERP implementation. This paper highlights the impor- tance of the fact that corporations are willing to continue conduct- ing ERP implementations if perceived benefits surpass perceived risks and costs, and therefore meets the challenging issue of seg- menting and mining ERP users’ perceived benefits. To this end, this study segments the ERP users into two subgroups based on the conception of Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene theory, and thenexplores the perceived benefits for these two subgroups using the RST. To deal with a multi-attribute and qualitative problem, such as exploring the perceived benefits for two subgroups, a data mining technique like the rough set approach, which is quite different from the quantitative-oriented statistical technique, is a wise op- tion. In contrast to classical statistical techniques, the RST has no need for the impractical assumption of statistical hypotheses, and does not require a huge set of data. It is able to directly analyze the original data, with either quantitative or qualitative attributes, and without the need of additional information. From the results of this empirical study, we can derive some management implica- tions. Firstly, we note that, since using Herzberg’s theory to seg- ment ERP users achieves a complete classification of 100%, this method is suitable for use in conducting better user analyses. Sec- ondly, rather than using a large set of 21 condition attributes, merely using one of these three condition attributes (SB4, OB5, MB3) can effectively identify the satisfaction subgroup of ERP users, with the CI ranging from 71.79% to 79.49%. This brings out several merits such as: the difficulty of analysis is reduced; the quality of decision-making is advanced; the complexity of prob- lem-solving is simplified; the key point is brought into focus; and, as a result profoundly improved actions can be launched. By utilizing the advantageous features of the Herzberg’s theory and the rough set approach, our study successfully conducted the task of segmenting and mining ERP users’ perceived benefits. This study, additionally, extends practical applications of Herzberg’s theory and RST in ERP issues. However, the significance of these three conditions attributes (SB4, OB5, MB3), it is to be noted are well worth watching carefully, given that they are not static, but highly changeable. This means that the significance of ERP users’ perceived benefits must continue to be the focus of exhaustive and regular research and adjustment. Today’s business environ- ment is becoming increasingly changeable and competitive. It drives us continuously to achieve more creativity as well as to seek new solutions that can improve business performance. To this end, in order to arrive at novel and meaningful findings and ideas, it be- hooves us to try out different perspectives, segmentation variables, and analytical methods such as soft computing or data mining techniques. Soft computing or data mining techniques can viewed as supplementary to statistical techniques, capable of creating complementary analyses in order to enrich the opportunities for business success. As for further research, one possible direction may be to investigate more satisfying segmentation variables