یک بررسی 100 ساله: مدیریت عملکرد نسبی زنان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|94640||2017||22 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 100, Issue 12, December 2017, Pages 10292-10313
Basic knowledge of mechanisms controlling reproductive processes in mammals was limited in the early 20th century. Discoveries of physiologic processes and mechanisms made early in the last century laid the foundation to develop technologies and programs used today to manage and control reproduction in dairy cattle. Beyond advances made in understanding of gonadotropic support and control of ovarian and uterine functions in basic reproductive biology, advancements made in artificial insemination (AI) and genetics facilitated rapid genetic progress of economically important traits in dairy cattle. Technologies associated with management have each contributed to the evolution of reproductive management, including (1) hormones to induce estrus and ovulation to facilitate AI programs; (2) pregnancy diagnosis via ultrasonography or by measuring conceptus-derived pregnancy-associated glycoproteins; (3) estrus-detection aids first devised for monitoring only physical activity but that now also quantitate feeding, resting, and rumination times, and ear temperature; (4) sex-sorted semen; (5) computers and computerized record software packages; (6) handheld devices for tracking cow location and retrieving cow records; and (7) genomics for increasing genetic progress of reproductive and other economically important traits. Because of genetic progress in milk yield and component traits, the dairy population in the United States has been stable since the mid 1990s, with approximately 9 to 9.5 million cows. Therefore, many of these technologies and changes in management have been developed in the face of increasing herd size (4-fold since 1990), and changes from pastoral or dry-lot dairies to increased housing of cows in confinement buildings with freestalls and feed-line lockups. Management of groups of âlikeâ cows has become equally important as management of the one. Management teams, including owner-managers, herdsmen, AI representatives, milkers, and numerous consultants dealing with health, feeding, and facilities, became essential to develop working protocols, monitor training and day-to-day chores, and evaluate current trends and revenues. Good management teams inspect and follow through with what is routinely expected of workers. As herd size will undoubtedly increase in the future, practical reproductive management must evolve to adapt to the new technologies that may find more herds being milked robotically and applying technologies not yet conceived or introduced.