تغییر در رفتارهای جستجوی کار و نتایج استخدامی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|26521||2000||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 56, Issue 2, April 2000, Pages 277–287
This study examined the change in job-search behaviors and employment outcomes of 121 recent university graduates who had not found employment in their final term prior to graduation. Participants completed a questionnaire prior to graduation and again 4 months later. The results of repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that job seekers increased their active job search behavior, formal job-source usage, and search intensity and decreased their job-search anxiety. Although self-esteem and job-search self-efficacy were related to job-search behaviors and outcomes, they did not moderate the change in job seekers' search behavior. As well, change in job-search behavior was related to the number of job interviews and employment status, and the relation between change in job-search behavior and employment status was mediated by the number of job offers received.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this study was to examine the change in job-search behaviors and employment outcomes of recent university graduates who had not found employment in their final term prior to graduation. Results indicated that job seekers reported an increase in their active job-search behavior, job-search intensity, and their use of formal job sources and lower job-search anxiety. These changes are consistent with predictions made by the sequential and learning models of job search. Interestingly, those participants in the Barber et al. (1994) study who were unemployed at graduation were also found to increase their use of formal sources and job-search intensity.In addition to investigating the change in job-search behavior, we also tested for changes in job search as a function of job seekers’ self-esteem and job-search self-efficacy. Both self-esteem and job-search self-efficacy related to preparatory job-search behavior and job-search anxiety. Job-search self-efficacy also related to the use of informal job sources. The individual differences explained a significant amount of variance in the number of job offers received. However,neither self-esteem nor job-search self-efficacy moderated the change in jobsearch behavior. Thus, the results indicated that change in job-search behavior is not a function of self-esteem or job-search self-efficacy. Rather, as reported in other studies, these variables have strong main effects on job-search behaviors and outcomes (Eden & Aviram, 1993; Ellis & Taylor, 1983; Kanfer & Hulin, 1985; Saks & Ashforth, 1999; Schwab et al., 1987).An important contribution of this study was the inclusion of employment outcomes. The results indicate that change in job-search behaviors related significantly to the number of job interviews and employment status. Furthermore,we found that an increase in active job-search behavior and -search intensity related to more job interviews, job interviews related to more job offers, and the relation between change in job-search behaviors and employment status was mediated by the number of job offers that job seekers received.The results of this study along with those of Barber et al. (1994) suggest that future job-search research should focus on the change and dynamics of the job-search process over longer periods of time. Short time frames are unlikely to capture some of the changes predicted by the job-search models. As a result, the findings of this study might reflect the relatively short time frame (i.e., 4 months)used to measure change in job seekers’ behaviors. Furthermore, if the baseline for graduates to find employment is graduation, then the job seekers in this study were unemployed for a relatively short period of time and some of the changes predicted by the job-search models might only materialize over longer periods of unemployment. Therefore, research that measures change in job-search behaviors over longer time frames is required. This could have implications for job-search counseling and training to the extent that knowing when certain changes in job-search behaviors occur, counselors can utilize specific interventions to coincide with particular changes during the job-search process.One of the limitations of this study was the self-report data. Common method variance could have inflated the relations among the variables. While we cannot rule this out, we do not believe that this was a serious problem because the focus of this study was on the change in job-search behaviors using longitudinal data rather than the interrelations among the variables at each time period. As well, we tested the relation between the change in job-search behaviors and the outcomes. Furthermore, although the three employment outcomes were measured by self-report, in theory such measures are objective (Wanberg, Watt, &Rumsey, 1996). Finally, the generalizability of the results to older and more experienced job seekers should be made with caution as the job seekers in this study were graduating university students. Recent graduates differ in many ways from employed and unemployed job seekers (Barber et al., 1994; Schwab et al., 1987).Because of their education, the job prospects of recent university graduates are likely to be better than the majority of unemployed job seekers. Therefore, the findings might be limited to young, educated, university graduates who were unemployed for a relatively short period of time. Future research is needed on older and more experienced job seekers.