چشم انداز جدید در یادگیری سازمانی: ایجاد تیم های یادگیری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3964||2006||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Evaluation and Program Planning, Volume 29, Issue 1, February 2006, Pages 88–96
This article elaborates a conceptual framework for learning organizations, through the introduction of change concepts and the creation of learning teams, and reports on a case that illustrates this framework. When organizational administrators and staff are asked whether their committees and work groups function as learning teams and their program functions as a learning community, the typical answer is ‘of course’. Too frequently, though, groups and programs are far from these goals. What is required is for administrative and staff groups of a program or unit to understand (a) what it takes for a group to become a learning team and for the unit to become a learning community, and (b) how to make these become a reality to improve effectiveness and increase productivity. This article offers a comprehensive definition for ‘learning teams’ and introduces a detailed design process for creating ‘learning teams’ and ‘organizational learning’. A real-world example from education highlights the implementation of a major school change process.
In this article, we develop a new perspective for significantly increasing organizational learning by providing a greater understanding of related and required concepts of change, learning, collaborative work systems, teams, synergy and authentic teams, co-mentoring relationships and learning teams, and their implementation in organizations. To do this, a foundation is laid for: change and its involvement as the number one issue facing organizations; change creation as the key process for major change in organizations; and the Universal Change Principle as the overarching tool for successfully dealing with change. Following that is a discussion of the nature of teams and team failure, synergistic teams as authentic teams and their prerequisites and the process for creating them, and the importance and essence of teams being co-mentoring. After this, a new, comprehensive meaning for ‘learning team’, is introduced and elaborated in terms of ‘alignment’ and ‘capacity development’. A practical, learning-team design process is described. We conclude with an example of a major, successful school-wide, organizational-learning effort in the Springfield (Missouri) Public Schools, where the new learning-team design process played a significant role in the success of that school system.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Whole-faculty study groups have been implemented in hundreds of schools and more than 2000 study groups in those schools. Where properly implemented, the whole-faculty study group process has been unusually successful in facilitating school-wide change and enhancing student learning (e.g. see Joyce et al., 1989 and Murphy, 1991, Murphy, 1992 and Murphy, 1995; Murphy & Lick, 2005). In his recent doctoral dissertation research, Koenigs (2004) found that: Professional learning community models, such as the Whole-Faculty Study Group System, show great promise to positively affect teachers' instructional practices and school culture if thought and care are taken during the implementation process. The driving force in the WFSG process is its self-directed, synergistic co-mentoring learning teams (e.g. see Lick, 1999a, Winter 2000, Lick, 2003 and Murphy and Lick, 2005). Such learning teams creatively: • Produce learning communities and set common goals, support member interdependence, empower participants, and foster active participation. • Plan and learn together, construct subject-matter knowledge, and engage broad principles of education that modify perspectives, policies, and practices. Immerse everyone in sustained work with ideas, materials, and colleagues. • Cultivate action researchers, producing, evaluating and applying relevant research. • Struggle with fundamental questions of what teachers and students must learn, know and apply (Murphy & Lick, 2005, pp. 177–8). The WFSG process, centered on synergistic co-mentoring study groups, is, in fact, a massive change creation process. It is one of the most practical and effective approaches presently available in research and practice literature. In particular, the study-group process dramatically increases: (1) Focus on imperative changes, as determined by school personnel. (2) Change sponsorship effectiveness, both project and school-wide. (3) Preparation of change agents, including the principal, faculty and others. (4) Commitment of targets (those who must change) and the reduction of resistance. (5) Positive advocacy, including that of the school board, superintendent, principal, faculty, students, parents and others from the general community. (6) Individual, group and school resilience, enhancing stakeholders change-adaptability. (7) Knowledge of change and change principles for stakeholders. (8) Organized processes for transition, including integrated, co-creative learning experiences that are teacher and student-centered, experimental and research-oriented, reflective, supportive and inspiring. (9) Group synergy, co-mentoring and learning team development, setting new school operational and relationship norms for action research and improving learning systems. (10) School and educational culture modification, allowing a critical re-examination of basic assumptions, beliefs, and behaviors and required learning systems and practices (Murphy & Lick, 2005, 178–9). The WFSG process, through the above 10 elements for leading and managing change, generates collective and inspiring vision and creates a high level of synergy and co-mentoring, allowing substantive learning, change and continuous improvement to become the norm in the school workplace and school culture.