آموزش درون سازمانی و تجدید استراتژیک در SME ها: توسعه چارچوب 4I
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3967||2006||21 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Long Range Planning, Volume 39, Issue 2, April 2006, Pages 155–175
This article explores how mature SMEs which lack internal resources access external knowledge to facilitate strategic renewal. Organizational learning, in contrast to entrepreneurial learning, recognizes that owner-managers must distribute knowledge throughout the firm to achieve competitive benefits. Three case studies demonstrate how external ‘knowledge providers’ (customers, suppliers and educational institutions) help institutionalize ‘new’ knowledge. Initially, learning from inter-organizational relationships requires owner-managers to be proactive in accessing and extending appropriate inter-organizational relationships. Second, external organizations can play an active role by ‘intertwining’ knowledge to support the development of processes, systems and routines that distribute and institutionalize learning throughout the organization. The three cases have practical implications for owner-managers and add to academic knowledge via the extension of Crossan et al's 4I model of organizational learning.
Senior managers' perceptions of environmental conditions have a significant influence on the exploitation of opportunities. Researchers must identify the influences on those key individuals responsible for decision-making if they are to understand the way in which organizations acquire and utilise new knowledge.1 This is particularly important in SMEs where owner-manager (OM) influence is pervasive and will directly affect the ability of their organization to learn.2 Limited managerial resources in smaller firms means that they are often dependent on knowledge from external sources, including feedback from customers and suppliers.3 However, organizational learning based on the systematic incorporation of new knowledge depends on the owner-manager's ability and willingness to encourage knowledge-sharing. Many SMEs operating in mature sectors lack the skills and knowledge to adopt modern management techniques and new technologies. If their firms are to survive in the long-term, owner-managers must develop mechanisms for identifying, acquiring and exploiting new knowledge.4 In this article we consider the following question: how do mature SMEs acquire and institutionalize external knowledge? We find that OMs attempting to promote strategic renewal must first acknowledge that their organization is actually facing a crisis. Crises may include declining sales or demands by customers and suppliers for new ways of working. Because most SMEs lack internal skills and resources, opening-up to external organizations is a crucial element in accessing knowledge. We also suggest that this may involve the OM ceding some control to enable customers, suppliers or other knowledge providers to help institutionalize learning mechanisms within the firm. Furthermore, delegating real responsibility to other managers and employees helps the shift from individual (owner-manager) learning to genuine organizational learning. The article begins with a discussion of literature associated with the distinction between individual and organizational learning. We then utilise the work of Crossan et al as a basis for framing the institutionalization of learning in SMEs.5 Following a discussion of our methodology, we present data on three cases which illustrate key concepts and activities that illuminate the process of learning and change in mature SMEs. We then discuss our findings and make proposals related to strategic renewal in SMEs, and consider the implications for academic researchers and owner-managers.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This article extends the original 4I framework by identifying the significance of external organizations to learning in SMEs. As a means of demonstrating the utility of our model we introduce three cases of learning in small, independent firms, who each renewed their activities by tapping into knowledge and expertise from external organizations. This activity was clearly part of the feed-forward process, as inter-organizational links helped resolve intractable problems in BRW, RSL and DMF. Further, in all three firms, external pressure helped institutionalize new knowledge by encouraging the adoption of more professional managerial practices. Because knowledge was embedded within organizational processes and systems (rather than in the head of owner-managers) learning was fed-back to groups and individuals via the micro-processes of integration, interpretation and intuiting. We extend the 4I model by incorporating ideas related to inter-organizational learning. Learning in SMEs tends to occur in reaction to some crisis or critical incident rather than as a result of a careful strategy to acquire new knowledge. Effective organizational learning requires owner-managers to relinquish some proprietary control so other actors have involvement in the acquisition, dissemination and application of that knowledge. We suggest that our conceptualization provides the opportunity for a more rigorous focus on the mechanisms by which small firms acquire new knowledge as a basis for organizational renewal. Not least of all because the need to compete in an increasingly globalized economy means that service firms as well as manufacturing firms can only remain competitive in the longer-term by becoming knowledge-based organizations.