روابط بین کار احساسی، عملکرد شغلی و گردش مالی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|21060||2011||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 79, Issue 2, October 2011, Pages 538–548
The present study investigates the relationship between the emotional labor strategies surface acting and deep acting and organizational outcomes, specifically, employees' overall job performance and turnover. Call center employees from two large financial service organizations completed an online survey about their use of surface and deep acting. Their responses were matched with supervisors' ratings of overall job performance and organizational turnover records obtained 9 months later. Results indicate that surface acting is directly related to employee turnover and emotional exhaustion and that the relationship between surface acting and job performance is indirect via employee affective delivery. Deep acting was not linked to these outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed from the perspective of emotional labor theories.
Emotional labor refers to employees' use of various strategies to regulate their emotions when interacting with customers in order to meet organizational emotional display requirements (Grandey, 2000 and Hochschild, 1983), also known as display rules (Ekman, 1973). Emotional labor is performed by employees in response to their perceptions of display rules (Diefendorff & Richard, 2003) and their commitment to these standards (Gosserand & Diefendorff, 2005). Understanding the consequences of emotional labor is important because both theory and empirical evidence suggest that emotional labor is integral to the daily work experience of many frontline service employees and is closely linked to indicators of employee well-being (Grandey, 2000 and Hochschild, 1983), customer outcomes such as satisfaction and loyalty (Giardini and Frese, 2008, Grandey, 2000, Grandey et al., 2005 and Hennig-Thurau et al., 2006), and ultimately, organizational performance (Grandey, 2000). Emotional labor can be viewed as an application of Gross's (1998b) process model of emotion regulation to the workplace (Côté, 2005). Thus, what is understood as emotional labor is a set of regulatory cognitions and behaviors enacted by employees at work in response to actual or anticipated discrepancies between felt emotions and perceptions of expected emotional displays. According to Gross's (1998b) model, emotion regulation is either antecedent-focused (anticipatory) or response-focused (reactionary). When applied to employee–customer interactions, these types of emotion regulation strategies mirror what is commonly known as deep acting (i.e., modifying felt emotions, usually in anticipation of a perceived discrepancy between felt and required emotions) and surface acting (i.e., the expression of emotions not actually felt by suppressing felt emotions, amplifying the expression of a weakly felt emotion, or faking unfelt emotions) ( Hochschild, 1983). Empirical evidence shows that surface and deep acting often yield divergent outcomes for employees, particularly regarding their well-being (Grandey, 2003 and Judge et al., 2009). Surface acting typically has more detrimental outcomes than deep acting. However, the impact of emotional labor strategies on organizational outcomes remains under-researched, hence the significance of the present study. Specifically, we investigate how the emotional labor strategies of surface and deep acting correspond to two critical outcomes: supervisor-rated overall job performance and employee turnover. In so doing, we move beyond prior research that either used broad measures of emotional labor (Duke, Goodman, Treadway, & Breland, 2009) or used self-report (Totterdell & Holman, 2003) or laboratory-based measures of performance (Goldberg & Grandey, 2007) to examine the link between specific emotional labor strategies and core job performance in an applied setting. The mediating roles of emotional exhaustion and affective delivery are also explored.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In summary, the present study makes important theoretical and methodological contributions to the emotional labor literature by showing evidence of both direct and indirect links between emotional labor strategies and the organizational outcomes of job performance and turnover behavior, obtained from multiple sources. Thus, our research provides empirical support for parts of Grandey's (2000) model of emotional labor that have received limited empirical attention, and also identifies affective delivery as an important mediator. Our study shows that employee emotional labor strategies do in fact impact important organizational outcomes, a result with substantial implications for emotional labor researchers and managers alike.