ابعاد B2B و کارت امتیازی RELPERF :برقراری تئوری بازاریابی رابطه ای با روش تجارت شرکت با شرکت
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|347||2008||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 37, Issue 6, August 2008, Pages 686–697
It is becoming increasingly important from both theoretical and managerial perspectives to measure Customer Relationship Management (CRM) as a key intangible asset. This paper seeks to bring relationship marketing theory into practice by developing a new measure of relationship performance between two firms, the business-to-business relationship performance (B2B-RELPERF) scale. Survey findings from a sample of approximately 400 purchasing managers operating in a B2B e-marketplace reveal that relationship performance is a high-order concept, composed of several distinct, yet related, dimensions: (1) relationship policies and practices, (2) relationship commitment; (3) trust in the relationship, (4) mutual cooperation; and (5) relationship satisfaction. Findings reveal that the B2B-RELPERF scale relates positively and significantly with customer loyalty. The paper also presents the B2B-RELPERF balanced scorecard, which combines tangible and intangible metrics. While existing IT solutions usually focus exclusively on the use of tangible CRM indicators, this new tool includes the “voice of the customer”. At the managerial level, both the scale and scorecard could act as useful instruments for short- and long-term management, controlling, planning, and improvement of B2B relationships. Implications for relationship marketing theory are also presented.
“If you do not measure it, then you cannot manage it!” (Jack Welch, former CEO of General Electric) At the beginning of the 21st century it is widely accepted that existing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) solutions have much room for improvement. The main reason may be found in a statement by Einstein: “everything that can be counted does not necessarily count; everything that counts cannot necessarily be counted.” In order to measure what “cannot necessarily be counted”, existing CRM Information Technologies (IT) solutions employ tangible metrics to assess intangible dimensions (e.g. trust and cooperation). Many firm's intangible assets constitute unique opportunities for economic (added) value, such as customer relationships, and these can and should be scientifically assessed (Hunt, 1997). As managers and researchers observe that good versus poor relationships significantly affect business performance, there is an increasing concern with achieving a better understanding of relationship development with business partners ( Lages et al., 2005a, Lages et al., 2005b and Lemon et al., 2002). Although intangible metrics are of interest to academics and managers, these two worlds discuss the issue quite differently ( Melnyk et al., 2004 and Likierman, 2004). While most managers do not have the scientific knowledge to develop reliable measures, most academic researchers are not concerned with the development of scientific metrics for application at the managerial level (Weick, 2001). Within this context, the development of business performance metrics requires the exploration of synergies between researchers and managers in order to develop scientific and reliable measures that might be of interest to practitioners, bridging the gap. Moreover, although marketing academics and practitioners have been examining relationship marketing since the mid-1980s, a significant criticism of most relationship marketing studies is the fact that many studies are based on a single dimension or a single financial indicator, intended to capture the nature of complex relationships between buyers and suppliers (Yau et al., 2000). A major priority for the upcoming years is the development of B2B metrics, namely in an e-commerce environment (Parasuraman et al., 2005 and Parasuraman and Zinkhan, 2002). Despite both managers and academics' interest in understanding relationships in e-commerce, concerted efforts have not materialized (Grewal et al., 2001 and Klein & Quelch, 1997). This article attempts to help bridge the gap by scientifically developing a new scale that enables, from a customer perspective, the assessment of relationship performance in business-to-business (B2B) relationships — named the “B2B-RELPERF scale”. Furthermore, the authors use the B2B-RELPERF scale to suggest the development and testing of the respective relationship performance scorecard for inclusion in periodic business reports and/or existing CRM IT solutions. It is believed that the scale (and future scorecard) might help firms to administer resources more efficiently, by allocating them to different customers, and identifying deviations from objectives. Given the development of different customer relationship processes, this can also help a firm to establish its annual priorities in terms of marketing efforts. Moreover, a firm can use relationship performance metrics as a motivation and reward tool for managers and their teams (e.g., bonus, promotion) by relying on comprehensive data. Finally, these metrics can support the development, monitoring, improvement and benchmarking of customer relationship processes (see Lages et al., 2005a and Lages et al., 2005b). This paper starts by presenting the five dimensions of the B2B-RELPERF scale. We then refine the preliminary scale using qualitative research and testing it through a field survey of approximately 400 purchasing managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in an e-marketplace. We also analyze the impact of the B2B-RELPERF scale on customers' loyalty intentions. Finally, we present implications for theory and practice, suggest a B2B-RELPERF scorecard, point out research limitations and define directions for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this economic environment when corporate budgets are being squeezed, Chief Marketing Officers are kept up at night by worry, trying to justify their expenditures and their existence. They believe that what they are doing has value, and they have to figure out how to demonstrate that value to skeptical CEOs and CFOs (Reibstein, 2004). As a direct response to a recent observation in the literature (Morgan & Hunt, 2003), we hope that this paper will help cultivate knowledge on relationship management theory while shedding light on B2B relationships that are supported by new information and communication technologies. Moreover, at a time when researchers are challenged to present studies with managerial implications (Marketing Science Institute, 2004), the B2B-RELPERF scale and the B2B-RELPERF scorecard might be used to address the managerial needs of B2B relationship performance planning, implementation, and control. By using the B2B-RELPERF scale and the B2B-RELPERF scorecard to assess the performance of a buyer–supplier relationship process, managers can better understand the constituent elements of the relationship process, which in turn aids managers in selecting, using, and controlling the most adequate marketing tools for each of these elements. These tools may also help managers understand differences that exist in the relationship process development phases among different customers or groups and can enable managers to handle such differences more efficiently and effectively. Moreover, by defining actions that address potential problems during the relationship marketing process development, managers can ultimately influence their firm's relationship orientation, retention, and loyalty strategies. Finally, by balancing and complementing financial and other operational measures with intangible customer metrics, the B2B-RELPERF balanced scorecard allows for better monitoring of relationship performance at both the customer and corporate levels, while helping to focus the entire organization on long-term strategy and improving shareholder value (Kaplan and Norton, 1992, Kaplan and Norton, 1996 and Kaplan and Norton, 2000). As a whole, in addition to addressing the relationship marketing area, this paper may also enrich knowledge in the e-commerce and purchasing literature.