توانمندسازی روانشناختی کارکنان غیرنظارتی مشغول به کار در رستوران هایی با سرویس کامل
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|5298||2003||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 22, Issue 1, March 2003, Pages 3–16
The purpose of this research was to examine the construct known as psychological empowerment as it was perceived by non-supervisory employees in full-service restaurants. The research instrument used in this study was first developed by Spreitzer (unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, 1992) and modified by Fulford and Enz (J. Manage. Issues 7 (2) (1995) 161). Subjects of the survey represented three restaurant chains in Midwest United States. Nine hundred twenty four surveys from 66 units were received representing a 46.2% usable response rate. Factor analysis revealed a three-dimensional factor structure for psychological empowerment. Findings related to demographics of the respondents and psychological empowerment, as well as the dimensions of psychological empowerment are presented
The dynamic business environment has been forcing service organizations to modify their traditional management techniques. Many of the guides previously developed for the manufacturing sector, and commonly used by restaurant businesses, are becoming obsolete. Unyielding operational procedures, simple job descriptions, and established standards have been the major philosophies in the manufacturing model practiced by service firms. The traditional management paradigm of the manager in control and the employees being controlled has often been utilized in the restaurant business. However, the techniques used in accordance with traditional management principles often have become less effective, as competition emerges and more demanding customers with individual needs come on the changing environment (Durnford, 1997). Therefore, adapting new management techniques has become necessary for all organizations to deliver the highest quality services and products in globally challenging circumstances. Employee empowerment, one of the newer techniques utilized by organizations, has been receiving accelerated attention from scholars and practitioners alike (Donavan, 1994; Townsend and Gebhardt, 1997). Likewise, empowerment has been considered a dynamic and complex phenomenon (Foster-Fishman et al., 1998). Researchers have approached the definition of empowerment from several orientations (Conner, 1997; Rudolph and Peluchette, 1993). The self-generated exercising of judgment (Bell and Zemke, 1988), and giving authority to make everyday decisions (Sternberg, 1992), are among the definitions of empowerment. Conger and Kanungo (1988) criticized the examination of empowerment in management literature for concentrating only on participative management techniques as the means of sharing power or delegating authority. They also questioned previous approaches to empowerment, believing these approaches do not always show how employees feel about empowerment. Conger and Kanungo believe that understanding of the construct is limited and confusing; therefore, it needs to be examined more meticulously.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As the restaurant industry is becoming more competitive with an ever-changing array of new entrants and increased customer power, establishments search for a differentiation that will cause them to be positively remembered in the mind of the guest. Often it is the relationship of server to guest that provides this distinction. Servers, who are able to make appropriate decisions on the spot, are often able to create a “moment of truth” which makes the difference. Employee empowerment is mentioned as a means of giving employees greater opportunity to impact the guest experience in a positive manner. However, empowerment is a management term of many meanings, most often taking on the unique meaning of the definer. There is also the issue of employee feelings of empowerment. The intent of this research was to extend the study of psychological empowerment of non-supervisory employees in full-service restaurants. Factor analysis confirmed that psychological empowerment is a multi-dimensional construct. This study confirmed the three-dimensional factor structure specified by Fulford and Enz (1995). Therefore, it appears, on the basis of the current study, that Fulford and Enz's modified version of Spreitzer's (1992) psychological empowerment scale can be used to measure psychological empowerment in service environments while being cautious of the competence scale. The empowerment score for the study respondents indicated that they believe they could have a moderately high level of psychological empowerment. Examination of the scores of the dimensions of empowerment and the individual factors making up those dimensions give further evidence of the feelings of the respondents. The scores on the dimensions indicate that the employees believe they have the competence, the skills and ability, to do the job in a proficient manner. They also indicate that the job has meaning for them, that is they believe the work is important and care about what they do. The employee responses on the factors related to the dimension of influence indicate that they believe they could have more influence on the nature of the job. As might be expected, younger employees expressed lower scores on the dimensions of meaning, competence, influence and overall empowerment than the older and often more experienced employees. Managers might want to spend more time with these individuals to help them address the items of these dimensions and encourage their overall performance. Fulford and Enz (1995) found differences in the feelings of empowerment of full and part time workers, as did this study. Members of the wait-staff exhibit lower scores on all dimensions and on empowerment than those holding other positions. If managers desire this group, which often consists of part-time employees, to feel higher levels of empowerment, additional effort must be given to addressing the items making up the three dimensions. This, in turn, may lead to increased feelings of empowerment of the wait-staff and lead to a more effective server–guest interaction. If psychological empowerment is to be considered a motivational construct (Conger and Kanungo, 1988; Thomas and Velthouse, 1990; Spreitzer (1995a) and Spreitzer (1995b)) then it becomes important for managers to examine the individual factors and be prepared to take specific actions to increase the level of employee agreement on the factor. This, in turn, leading to higher levels of psychological empowerment. As employees feel they have the competence but not the influence, managers might spend more time asking questions and listening to employee ideas about the performance of the job and how it might be made more meaningful. The work of Deci and Ryan (1985) has pointed out the importance of self-determination in being motivated to take action. Following this, giving employees the opportunity to make relevant decisions concerning the job may lead to increased willingness to take action and increased job related satisfaction. The studies of Ashness and Lashley (1995) confirm the need for strong orientation and communication in the implementation of an empowerment program. The concept of psychological empowerment is controversial and often misunderstood. If managers find value in the concept and its potential outcomes, they will need to be prepared to exhibit decreased degrees of control and increased levels of trust. Restaurant managers must determine the meaning of empowerment and the level of employee decision-making desired. Empowerment is not just telling people that they are empowered; it is also having them feel they are empowered and willing to demonstrate the associated behaviors. As Lashley (1999, p. 182) states, “The feelings of the empowered are fundamental to understanding the concept of empowerment and variations in form and application.” Response to the employee level of feeling on the dimensions will be important in implementation and employee acceptance. Sparrowe (1994) has shown that the manager–employee relationship is important when considering the psychological empowerment of employees. Managers might reexamine their own behaviors and how they supervise the activities of others. Reexamining the structure of the job, the training given and employee recognition are important to increasing feelings of empowerment and productivity.