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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 35, Issue 4, November 2008, Pages 1930–1939
Based on the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard, including the financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth perspectives, this study applied Fuzzy Delphi Method to construct key performance appraisal indicators for mobility of the service industries. The constructed indicators could serve as a reference for the service industries to establish applicable performance appraisal indicators according to the properties of the each industry after mobility is introduced. The research findings showed that cost control, profit growth, and sales growth are the top three indicators in the financial perspective, while service/product quality, customer satisfaction, and service timing are the three major indicators in the customer perspective. In the internal process perspective, information delivery, standard operation procedure, and interactions between staffs and clients are most valued. In the learning and growth perspective, corporate image, competitiveness, and employee satisfaction are most emphasized among various service industries.
With the thriving development of global wireless communication and the record-breaking prevalence of mobile phones, Internet users are no longer subject to traditional wired environments. The integration of wireless communication and mobile Internet services has been considered as one of the most promising investments, and mobile commerce is even a focus of various industries. Many industries have perceived that although e-enterprise allows employees to access the Internet at anytime, enhance work efficiency, and reduce cost, it is unable to satisfy external staffs that need to spend most of their working hours on attending meetings or visiting customers. They are unable to connect to the Internet anywhere and access the company database to retrieve important data instantly. Due to the inconvenience of the Internet access, many enterprises have perceived the importance of mobility, and that is the reason why mobile Internet has been gradually paid attention to. Because of the immeasurable development potential of mobile commerce, some enterprises have already introduced mobile commerce applications for employees to accomplish more tasks in a shorter time. Mobile commerce allows them to work away from office, achieve a balance between work and life, enhance their satisfaction with the enterprise, and promote their loyalty and cohesion. Thus, enterprise mobility is not merely about constructing a convenient network access environment. It can increase productivity, investment return rate, and reduce cost. It can also benefit employee’s work quality. For enterprises, performance appraisal helps them diagnose whether the adopted strategy and organizational structure will help them achieve their goals. And the construction of performance appraisal indicators is also the first step for enterprises to conduct practical evaluations. In the era of new economy, enterprises must go through the transition from traditional performance appraisal systems to strategic performance appraisal systems. By integrating performance appraisal systems with strategies as well as integrated and global perspectives, enterprises are able to find out their competitiveness and the direction for improvement. The balanced scorecard is a strategic management tool in the era of knowledge economy (Niven, 2002). It not only links organizational strategies, structures, and prospects but also combines traditional and strategic performance appraisal indicators. Thus, enterprises can transform long-term strategies and innovative customer values into substantive activities inside and outside the organization (Chan, Gaffney, Neailey, & Ip, 2002). Despite a number of ways to filter performance appraisal criteria, not many enterprises in Taiwan have introduced mobile commerce, and the extraction of large samples is not easy. However, Fuzzy Delphi Method requires only a small number of samples and the derived results are objective and reasonable. It saves time and cost required for collecting expert opinions, and experts opinions will also be sufficiently expressed without being distorted (Hsu & Yang, 2000). Thus, this study uses Fuzzy Delphi Method as the main selection model for performance indicators. Currently in Taiwan, mobility is mainly introduced to service industries, and better results have been observed in the consulting, real estate brokerage, retail, hospitality, banking, insurance, medical, and logistic industries. As a result, this study uses the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard, namely financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth perspectives, as the perspectives for the performance appraisal of mobility. Through Fuzzy Delphi Method, the key indicators can be derived for the various service industries after the introduction of mobility. The research results can be provided as a reference for enterprises to construct performance appraisal indicators after mobility is introduced. Besides, from the perspectives of the balanced scorecard, mobile commerce system developers can develop systems that comply with the demands of enterprises according to the characteristics and strategic goals of various industries.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
When enterprises introduce new technologies, they always place the focus on how much they can be benefited by the new technologies. Thus, establishing a set of objective performance appraisal indicators will be their priority task. This study applied modified Fuzzy Delphi Method to construct performance appraisal indicators for service industries after mobility is introduced. The experiences from other enterprises in the same industry are expected to produce substantive benefits from the dominance over appraisal indicators and further reduce the risks of introduction. The research findings showed that cost control, profit growth rate, and sales growth rate in the financial perspective are the indicators most valued by all the service industries. The consulting and insurance industries are the two industries with most performance appraisal indicators selected, while the banking, medical, and logistics industries have the fewest. In the customer perspective, the most important indicators are service/product quality, customer satisfaction, and service timing. In the consulting and insurance industries, all the indicators have passed the selection criterion. The retail industry has the fewest indicators selected. In the internal process perspective, information delivery, standard operation procedure, and interaction between employee and clients are more emphasized by every industry. The retail, hospitality, and insurance industries put a strong emphasis on the indicators in this perspective, as all the key indicators have been selected. However, the medical industry has the fewest items selected. In the learning and growth perspective, corporate image, competitiveness, and employee satisfaction are most valued by service industries. The insurance industry has the most key indicators selected, while the consulting industry has the fewest. It can be discovered that some indicators were eliminated. But, the main reason is that interviewed experts had different focuses on the benefits of the introduction of mobility. A larger difference in the appraisal scores was resulted, so the indicators had to be excluded. However, this study proposed a conceptual structure based on literature reviews, and the structure may not perpetually the same. Organizations can add/remove appraisal indicators according to their practical demands and the needs of enterprises. This study applied sampling method on enterprises with mobility introduced, so not every enterprise could be covered. Besides, due to the limitation of time and inconvenience of data acquisition, only the data of a subjective questionnaire could be used in the analysis. Moreover, the respondents may not have sufficient understanding of each question. Even if they were informed of the intention and use of the survey in advanced, some biases of the survey results could still exist. Therefore, our analysis may be insufficient. Due to insufficient human resource and time and other objective factors, only the enterprises in the service industries with mobility introduced were extracted as research samples. It was suggested that follow-up studies may take other industries as research subjects and expand the investigation for an in-depth research, so that the results will be more comprehensive and applicable to other industries.