حقوق بومی زمین، کارآفرینی و توسعه اقتصادی در کانادا: "در امید بستن به " اقتصاد جهانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13044||2006||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of World Business, Volume 41, Issue 1, February 2006, Pages 45–55
Indigenous people are struggling to reassert their nationhood within the post-colonial states in which they find themselves. Claims to their traditional lands and the right to use the resources of these lands are central to their drive to nationhood. Traditional lands are the ‘place’ of the nation and are inseparable from the people, their culture, and their identity as a nation. Traditional lands and resources are the foundation upon which indigenous people intend to rebuild the economies of their nations and so improve the socioeconomic circumstance of their people—individuals, families, communities, and nations. This paper explores business development activities that flow from the later aspect of indigenous land rights in a Canadian context, suggesting that the process is a particular and important instance of social entrepreneurship.
There are various types of entrepreneurs identified in the literature and these are usually divided into groups that share an adjective in common; for example, nascent, novice, serial, and so on. Woo, Cooper, and Dunkelberg (1991) developed and interpreted entrepreneurship typologies. More recently, there has been discussion about social entrepreneurs. Mort, Weerawardena, and Carnegie (2003) define social entrepreneurship, as “the entrepreneurship leading to the establishment of new social enterprises and the continued innovation in existing ones” (p. 76). These authors conceptualize social entrepreneurship as a multidimensional construct involving the expression of virtuous behavior in order to achieve a social mission, a coherent unity of purpose and action in the face of moral complexity, the ability to recognize social value-creating opportunities and decision-making characteristics of innovativeness, proactiveness, and risk-taking. Similarly, Pearce (2003) distinguishes social enterprise from other forms by emphasizing the following: social purpose is the principal driver of activity, with organizational sustainability as a core objective; social purpose is achieved primarily through entrepreneurship; there is little if any distribution of profit to individuals, as any surplus is reinvested for the long-term benefit of the community; constituents are democratically involved; and there is accountability. Borzaga and Defourny (2001) emphasize that social enterprise includes the creation of jobs and the strengthening of social capital by supporting the integration of marginal people into society at large. It is our contention that the development activities of indigenous people in Canada and elsewhere are entirely consistent with the definitions above and are therefore a particular and important instance of social entrepreneurship.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
After centuries of struggle buttressed by decisions of the Supreme Court of Canada, during the final three decades of the 20th Century, the approach to indigenous claims has shifted from contention to negotiation and enterprise. No longer does the state contest the existence of indigenous rights to land, resources, and some form of ‘self-government’. Instead, it seeks to negotiate agreements based on these rights that will form the foundation for prosperous indigenous ‘nations’ within Canada. The key to achieving such prosperity is Aboriginal entrepreneurship and economic development, building on the capacity provided by the settlements. Based on the business development experience of the Inuvialuit, the Osoyoos Indian Band, and the La Ronge First Nation, this approach seems promising.