هنجارهای برابری طلب، توسعه اقتصادی، و قطبی شدن قومی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|15160||2013||26 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Comparative Economics, Volume 41, Issue 3, August 2013, Pages 719–744
Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We illustrate this point by describing the processes of land privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa and then present two models that capture some salient aspects of this transformation in rural communities, including the possibility of polarization. We find that the support of egalitarian norms is notably strong when new opportunities are available for only a few people or when the community is socially unstable. Moreover, in unstable communities, polarization is strongest when the group with the most lucrative opportunities comprises half the population.
Rural communities in land abundant areas are historically characterized by egalitarian norms (see, e.g., Fried, 1967, Flanagan, 1989, Boehm, 1993 and Platteau, 2000). In contrast to the individualistic ideology of modern societies, these norms emphasize the reciprocal rights and obligations among community members. Communal networks of reciprocal relationships serve as a social security system and also guarantee the cooperative endeavor in the provision of public goods. The drawbacks of egalitarian norms often become apparent when the underlying stationary conditions change (Boehm, 1993, Narayan et al., 2000, Platteau, 2000, Platteau, 2009 and Hoff and Sen, 2006). The strong moral sense of reciprocity values typically tends to make communities resistant to new opportunities that may improve the lives of many. This holds especially when new opportunities are unequally distributed among the population, that is, when relative positions are at stake. In that case, any erosion of egalitarian norms and beliefs, and their replacement by modern individualistic values, bear the risk of polarization and violent conflict.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Economic development and modernization generally involve a transformation of cultural norms. Traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs tend to be replaced by modern individualistic values. Often the transformation is not a painless process. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, it may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We illustrated this point by looking at the transformation of communal lands in Sub-Saharan Africa. A rural community in Kenia (Siambu) was discussed in detail where inequalities in landholding and land access affected traditional institutions and brought about a troubled environment. We also provided examples where the cultural insecurity arising from the land privatization, and hence the entry into market relations and a money economy, sets groups up against each other: farmers versus urban dwellers, herders versus farmers, immigrants versus residents, the elderly versus the young. We tried to construct theoretical models that capture some salient aspects of the erosion of traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs, particularly the possibility of polarization.