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|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|19235||2006||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 35, Issue 4, May 2006, Pages 405–414
Recent studies show that manufacturing firms can select suppliers according to suppliers' market-oriented behaviors. Based on market orientation literature and research on inter-firm relationships, a model is developed to examine the impact of supplier's market orientation on manufacturer's trust. The framework is tested using Structural Equation Modeling and the data are from dyadic manufacturer and supplier relationships in U.S. firms. The results show that supplier's market orientation is significantly related to manufacturer's trust, which affects the manufacturer's long-term orientation toward the supplier. Discussions and implications for managers are presented at the end of the article.
Inter-firm relationships have attracted great attention in business research (Heide & John, 1988, Heide & John, 1992 and Stump & Heide, 1996). Developing a few but selective, stable, and long-term inter-firm relationships is the main theme in recent research (Bello et al., 1999, Ganesan, 1994, Hewett et al., 2002 and Kalwani & Narayandas, 1995). Supplier–manufacturer relationships are recognized as being important in developing a sustainable competitive advantage for the manufacturer (Cannon & Homburg, 2001 and Stump & Heide, 1996). Trust has been identified as an important construct in both the conceptual and empirical models of various inter-organizational exchange relationships (Baker et al., 1999, Parkhe, 1993 and Stump & Heide, 1996). Traditionally, relationship marketing and transaction cost analysis have been applied extensively to the examination of buyer–seller interactions (Spekman, 1988). Recent studies have extended the research by applying market orientation theory to inter-firm relationships research (Siguaw, Simpson, & Baker, 1998). These studies show that the adoption of market-oriented behaviors can facilitate the management of inter-firm relationships. Market-oriented behavior is an implementation and a reemphasis of the marketing concept (Kohli & Jaworski, 1990 and Narver & Slater, 1990). Narver and Slater (1990) and Kohli and Jaworski (1990) synthesize the previous research and build market orientation constructs for the implementation of the marketing concept. Jaworski and Kohli (1993) and Slater and Narver (1994) explore the links of market orientation with other organizational factors. Many researchers further extend their research and applied market orientation to areas such as new product development (Gatignon & Xuereb, 1997, Han et al., 1998 and Hurley et al., 1998), inter-firm relationship management (Siguaw et al., 1998), sales force management (Siguaw, Brown, & Widing, 1994), entrepreneurial proclivity (Matsuno, Mentzer, & Ozsomer, 2002), non-for-profit organizations (Wood, Bhuian, & Kiecker, 2000), and international business management (Nakata & Sivakumar, 2001 and Rose & Shoham, 2002). These studies show that market-oriented firms are more likely to manage inter-firm relationships efficiently. The central concept of market orientation is the organization-wide focus on the creation of superior value for customers (Narver & Slater, 1990 and Slater & Narver, 1994). It includes the generation of customer-focused market intelligence, the dissemination of this intelligence throughout the organization, and the formation of organization-wide actions to satisfy customers' demands (Jaworski & Kohli, 1993). Understandably, market orientation greatly influences buyer–seller relationships since customers (buyers) play an important role in market-oriented firms. The supplier–manufacturer relationship represents a typical buyer–seller interaction in the market. Suppliers' market-oriented behaviors would undoubtedly affect a manufacturer's perception in the relationship and further influence the outcome of the relationship (Siguaw et al., 1998). In this study, a model is proposed for the study of the impact that supplier's market orientation has on manufacturer's trust. Dyadic data were collected from the manufacturer and supplier relationships in U.S. firms so that the model could be tested. According to market orientation literature, a market-oriented supplier is likely to support the manufacturer in many aspects such as customer service and new product development. Supplier's market-oriented behaviors enhance manufacturer's trust, and this trust positively affects manufacturer's long-term orientation toward the supplier. In the next part, the model of the study and research hypotheses are presented. After this, the methodology of the study and the results are discussed. The final part points out the implications of the study, the limitations of the research, and future research directions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The main objective underlying this study is to examine the impact of supplier's market orientation on supplier–manufacturer relationships. A model was developed for the study of the impact that supplier's market orientation has on manufacturer's trust in the supplier. The model was tested using dyadic data from U.S. firms. In general, results provide some empirical evidence that supplier's market orientation positively influences manufacturer's trust in supplier, an outcome that is positively related to manufacturer's long-term orientation toward the supplier. These results provide further understanding of the role of market orientation in inter-firm relationships. Supplier customer orientation is an important factor contributing to manufacturer's trust in supplier. This finding is in line with the findings of previous research on market orientation and inter-firm relationships. Customer orientation is a central construct of market orientation. Supplier's customer-orientated behaviors include researching the manufacturer, being open to the manufacturer's concerns, and providing accurate and relevant information to the manufacturer. The supplier often faces a choice between customer satisfaction and short-term self-interests. The goal of a customer-oriented supplier should always be long-term customer satisfaction. Supplier customer orientation, therefore, is an indicator of the quality of supplier–manufacturer relationships. It influences the level of manufacturer satisfaction. The supplier, perceived as behaving in a market-oriented manner, is more likely to be deemed credible and benevolent, and thus trustworthy, by the manufacturer. Supplier inter-functional coordination significantly influences manufacturer's trust in the supplier. Inter-functional coordination is the organization's coordinated efforts to create superior value for the customer. In the supplier–manufacturer relationships, this contribution is the supplier's coordinated utilization of organizational resources in creating superior value for the manufacturer. The manufacturer, for example, would let the supplier independently undertake the design of certain components. The supplier would need to consider whether new components add value for the manufacturer and, if not, to consider whether an alternative design can be used or whether different materials can be applied. This requires effective and efficient communication and coordination among marketing, manufacturing, design, and sales in the supplier. Therefore, a supplier's inter-functional coordination represents that supplier's commitment to supplier–manufacturer relationships. This would reduce the manufacturer's perception of opportunistic behaviors and increase the manufacturer's trust in the supplier. Supplier's competitor orientation does not have a significant impact on manufacturer's trust in the supplier. One explanation is the manufacturer's perception of the supplier's competitor-oriented behaviors. The manufacturer would assign greater value to the supplier's direct support of activities such as a commitment to serving the manufacturer's needs, to cultivating manufacturer satisfaction, and to responding promptly to the manufacturer's special requirements. The manufacturer would consider a supplier's competitive moves to be less related to its own business strategies. Manufacturer's trust in supplier significantly influences the manufacturer's long-term orientation toward the supplier. This is consistent with Ganesan (1994), who points out that, generally, a contract reached by a buyer and a seller is incomplete in long-term relationships. Opportunistic behaviors are more likely because of the ease with which such relationships are terminated. A firm's adoption of trusting behaviors will minimize the threat of opportunism. Therefore, supplier's market-oriented (trust-building) behaviors increase the manufacturer's trust in the supplier. The mutual trust increases the likelihood that the manufacturer will adopt a long-term orientation toward the supplier. Market turbulence moderates the relationships between supplier market orientation and manufacturer's trust in the supplier. This can be explained from both the supplier's perspectives and the manufacturer's perspectives. From the supplier side, its market orientation behavior allows the supplier to identify the manufacturer's special needs in an unstable market environment. The market-oriented supplier, therefore, is more likely to develop business strategies that satisfy the manufacturer's changing needs—needs that concern for instance, investment risk sharing, the providing of more and better services, and the fusion of the manufacturer's cross-functional teams for the purpose of new product development. From the manufacturer's side, it is impossible to write a contract that covers all the contingencies in an unstable environment (Ganesan, 1994). The manufacturer is likely to rely on trust to manage supplier–manufacturer relationships. In other words, supplier's trust-building behaviors (customer orientation, competitor orientation, and inter-functional coordination) are more important for the manufacturer in a turbulent market than the supplier's other behaviors. Competitive intensity moderates the relationship between supplier's customer orientation and manufacturer's trust in the supplier and the relationship between supplier's inter-functional coordination and manufacturer's trust in the supplier. Customer orientation and inter-functional coordination represent a supplier's core activities in serving a manufacturer's needs. In a highly competitive environment, the manufacturer faces the challenges of cost reduction and fast new product development. The supplier can use simpler construction methods or different materials to help the manufacturer reduce costs. The manufacturer can also externalize certain NPD tasks to the supplier to speed up the new product development process. This course of action also allows the manufacturer to use the supplier's expertise in new product development. Competitive intensity does not moderate the relationship between supplier competitor orientation and manufacturer's trust in the supplier. In this study, supplier competitor orientation is the supplier's reaction to its own competitive environment, whereas competitive intensity is the competitive environment that the manufacturer faces. Because the supplier and the manufacturer encounter different competitive environments, the manufacturer's competitive intensity does not influence the effect of supplier's competitive behavior. The findings are important from both the academician's perspectives and the practitioner's perspectives. This study extends the market orientation theory to the management of supplier–manufacturer relationships. The analysis indicates that supplier's market-oriented behaviors signify the supplier's trust-building process in supplier–manufacturer relationships. For the supplier, developing long-term supplier–manufacturer relationships involves both a full understanding of the manufacturer's needs and the development of the manufacturer-oriented business strategy. By taking joint actions, the manufacturer and the supplier can serve customers in a much broader range.