توسعه و اثرات رهبری تحول گرا در نوجوانان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|19432||2000||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Leadership Quarterly, Volume 11, Issue 2, 1 June 2000, Pages 211–226
We developed and tested a model in which adolescents who perceive their parents exhibiting transformational leadership behaviors would themselves display these behaviors. In turn, adolescents who used transformational leadership behaviors in a team context (as rated by themselves, their peers, and their coach) would be rated as more effective, satisfying, and effort-evoking leaders by their peers and coaches. Participants were 112 high school students (mean age = 15.2 years) who were members of 11 sports teams, and their team coaches. Controlling for the effects of adolescents' skills, results obtained using structural equation modeling supported the predicted model. Conceptual and empirical issues regarding the development and effects of transformational leadership in adolescents are discussed. Despite ever increasing attention being paid to transformational leadership in the literature and its wide theoretical Bass 1997 and Bass 1998 and practical acceptance (Avolio, 1998), the development of transformational leadership behaviors has rarely been examined and remains little understood. Transformational leadership comprises four components, namely, idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. Idealized influence takes place when leaders build subordinates' respect and trust by behaving in a fair manner and do what is right rather than what is expedient. Inspirational motivation occurs when leaders increase followers' awareness of the mission or vision toward which they are working and raise followers' expectations of what they can achieve, thereby motivating them to pursue the group's goals. Transformational leaders use intellectual stimulation when they encourage their followers to look at old problems from new and differing perspectives, giving rise to followers' creative thinking and innovation. Last, transformational leaders grant individualized attention to their followers, considering their needs and abilities. With their use of individualized consideration, transformational leaders play an especially important role in followers' growth and development Bass 1985a, Bass 1985b, Bass 1990 and Bass 1998. Transformational leadership has now been subjected to considerable empirical scrutiny. Transformational leadership predicts organizational performance in field (e.g., Barling et al. 1996 and Howell & Avolio 1993) and laboratory studies (e.g., Kirkpatrick & Locke 1996 and Sosik, Avolio, & Kahai 1997). What links transformational leadership indirectly to favorable organizational outcomes is its direct effects on subordinates' satisfaction with (Hater & Bass, 1988), and trust in Barling, Moutinho, & Kelloway 1998 and Podsakoff, MacKenzie, & Bommer 1996, their leaders, and the way in which it raises subordinates' affective commitment (Barling et al., 1996) and self-efficacy beliefs (Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1993). Most of the research conducted on leadership in general, and transformational leadership in particular, has focused on its measurement (e.g., Bycio, Hackett, & Allen, 1995) and/or on its effects. Some studies have identified factors that predispose individuals to choose to use transformational leadership, such as postconventional moral reasoning (Turner & Barling, 1998) or emotional intelligence (Slater, Barling, & Kelloway, 1998). The effects of parents and the home environment on leadership development have also been addressed (Karnes & D'Ilio, 1989), but the developmental origins of leadership remain elusive. Consequently, the aim of this study is to further our understanding of the development of leadership in children, and transformational leadership in particular. Bass (1960) initially speculated about family factors that would promote the development of leadership in children. He suggested that leadership potential is greatest among the youngest siblings of the family, for children in families of four or five children, and for those children whose parents provide stimulating environments, opportunities for decision making, encouragement, and acceptance. Bronfenbrenner (1961) showed that leadership was more likely in families in which fathers are more highly educated and in which both parents are less rejecting, less punitive, and less overprotective. In turn, parent-child interactions reflecting these more positive qualities predisposed children to leadership behaviors. Klonsky (1983) found parental warmth, discipline, and achievement demands predicted leadership behaviors in a sample of high school students. Schneider, Paul, White, & Holcombe (1999) developed a comprehensive model, covering five construct domains, that predicted later leadership ratings for a sample of high school student leaders. This study was the first stage of a continuing research program to develop an understanding of the origin, development, and emergence of adult leadership behavior. Finally, Keller (1999) linked college student implicit leadership theories to descriptions of parental traits. A separate approach has investigated the early hardships endured by children. From a retrospective study, Cox and Cooper (1989) found that many successful British chief executive officers (CEOs) experienced the early loss of a parent or had been separated from their parents and, consequently, had to take responsibility for themselves at an early age. Similarly, Elder (1974) concluded that children whose fathers were unemployed during the Great Depression were forced to deal with challenges and difficulties at a young age. As a result, these children were better adjusted in the long term: they did better in school, were more likely to pursue higher education, and were found to be generally more satisfied with their lives. Elder (1974) called this the “downward extension hypothesis.” Biographical studies of famous leaders, such as Ghandi, support this notion (Gardner, 1997). Only Avolio and Gibbons (1988) have addressed the development of transformational leadership specifically. They analyzed the life histories of successful CEOs and identified several early factors associated with transformational leadership, including parents who set high standards for achievement and who encouraged their children to be the best, and family circumstances that were difficult but not overwhelming. Furthermore, transformational leaders had often learned, within the family, how to deal with disappointment and conflict effectively. These studies provide some insight into early influences on the development of leadership in general, and in one case, transformational leadership behavior in particular. However, much of the research is flawed in two important respects. First, research examining the development of leadership largely has been conducted without a clear theoretical framework. Second, from an experimental perspective, research in the area has usually been retrospective in nature, with findings that may be questionable given that people often fail to recall some early experiences, may have reconstructed events which are remembered, and may inflate the importance of others. As a result, a more systematic approach to the study of leadership development that confronts these two issues is warranted. Unlike previous research which has tended to be atheoretical, we explicitly place the development of leadership in a social learning framework (Bandura, 1977), emphasizing the role of parental modeling on the development of adolescents' leadership. Specifically, given that all leadership involves a series of interactions that occur within the context of a relationship, we assume that adolescents learn both experientially and vicariously from their interactions with their parents. In turn, adolescents will use behaviors similar to those their parents use with them, in their interactions with others. In support of this idea, Hartman and Harris (1992) found that college students modeled their management style on the leadership style of persons who they admired early in their lives; most of whom were the parents of the respondents. We also posit that if indeed leadership behaviors develop during adolescence, this may well be of considerable relevance for future leadership behaviors. Extending Krosnick and Alwin's (1989) impressionable years hypothesis, we suggest that, like attitudes, behaviors learned during adolescence may also be relatively stable. Our central hypothesis, namely, that the extent to which adolescents observe transformational behaviors exhibited by their parents will influence their adoption of similar behaviors, rests on the assumption that parent-child interactions can be described within a transformational framework. We suggest that the behaviors included within a transformational leadership framework extend well beyond the organizational realm, adequately describing the behaviors of parents and teachers as well Avolio 1998 and Bass 1997. For example, parents could display idealized influence by setting an example in terms of doing the right thing and acting in ways that build their children's respect. Parents show inspirational motivation when they talk optimistically about what their children can accomplish and by setting high standards. Similarly, parents model intellectual stimulation to the extent in which they help their children reevaluate their assumptions and develop appropriate solutions themselves, rather than telling them what to do. Last, children experience their parents as displaying individualized consideration when their parents think about their children's needs. Consequently, we propose that adolescents perceive the extent to which their parents exhibit transformational behaviors (namely, inspirational motivation, idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration) during parent-child interactions and adopt similar interactional styles themselves. Studies examining the effects of parents' attitudes and behaviors on children illustrate that children are accurate observers of their parents' behaviors and attitudes Barling et al. 1998, Barling et al. 1991, Barling, Zacharatos, & Hepburn 1999, Hartman and Harris 1992, Kelloway & Watts 1994 and Whitbeck & Gecas 1988. Perhaps more importantly, and consistent with these findings, children's attitudes and behaviors are strongly influenced by their perceptions of their parents' behaviors and attitudes. In turn, we propose that when children learn from their parents to behave in a transformational manner, they will be more likely to use the same style of interaction with their peers, and therefore will be perceived as being more effective, satisfying, and effort-inducing (see Fig. 1 for the basic model). To test this, we will focus on the leadership behaviors manifested by adolescents while functioning within sports teams. The reason for our focus on sports teams is that they provide a naturalistic setting for examining leadership behaviors (Smoll & Smith, 1989) and a context in which multiple ratings of both leadership behaviors and outcomes are available. Last, it is important to note that Lord, De Vader, and Alligeri's (1986) meta-analysis showed that perceptions of leadership were affected by traits such as intelligence, dominance, and masculinity-femininity. By extension, we expect that adolescents' athletic skill will affect the extent to which they are perceived to exhibit transformational leadership behaviors (Lord & Maher, 1991). Specifically, we suggest that adolescents' perceived skill levels may influence perceptions of their transformational leadership, as well as the perceived effectiveness of their leadership. Accordingly, any effects of athletic skill on these variables are controlled in testing the model. In contrast, because there is no reason to believe that coaches' perceptions of adolescents' skill would be associated with adolescents' perceptions of their interactions with their parents, no statistical control is undertaken for the effects of skill level on adolescents' perceptions of their mothers' and fathers' child-rearing behaviors.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this study was to examine the development and effects of adolescents' transformational leadership behaviors. The model as a whole was strongly supported by the data. The results of this study extend previous research in the area of leadership development. First, this study demonstrates that leadership development can be explained in a social learning framework (Bandura, 1977). Specifically, adolescents perceive the extent to which their fathers use behaviors consistent with transformational leadership when interacting with them and, in turn, manifest these behaviors themselves when interacting with their peers. Second, the current results demonstrate that transformational leadership behaviors are not only manifested by adults, but by adolescents as well. Adolescents exhibiting transformational leadership behaviors appear to be capable of evoking effort from their peers and of being perceived as satisfying and effective leaders Barling et al. 1996, Hater & Bass 1988, Howell & Avolio 1993 and Koh, Steers, & Terborg 1995. Third, by showing that transformational leadership behaviors are exhibited by adolescents, the importance of this study goes beyond merely showing the effects of transformational leadership to a younger age group. Instead, if indeed these behaviors are relatively stable (Krosnick & Alwin, 1989), then the transformational leadership behaviors that exist during adolescence may have critical implications for later leadership. Considerable confidence can be placed in the present findings for several reasons. First, the results of this study achieve added credibility because the use of multiple data sources eliminates problems of monomethod bias, which are often an issue in similar studies. In addition, the results of the measurement model provide additional support for the construct validity of the separate scales. Second, our model received empirical support after controlling for the effects of adolescents' skill levels, extending its validity. The magnitude of the parameters associated with perceived skill levels (see Fig. 2) emphasizes the importance of controlling for perceived skill level in similar studies on adolescents and questions whether similar controls would be equally appropriate for research on adult leadership. Nonetheless, some cautionary comments are in order. First, perceptions of fathers' transformational leadership affected children's transformational leadership, but perceptions of mothers' transformational leadership did not. Although this is consistent with Hartman and Harris (1992), who found that children's modeling of their fathers' perceived leadership style was greater than modeling of their perceived mothers' leadership style, we suggest that the most probable and parsimonious reason for this is multicollinearity. Specifically, there are substantial zero-order relationships between perceptions of mothers' and fathers' leadership behaviors (see Table 4), and a post-hoc analysis revealed that, when considered separately, perceptions of both mothers' and fathers' transformational leadership predicted adolescents' transformational leadership. When considered simultaneously, as in the current study, the effects of perceptions of fathers' transformational leadership “washes out” the effect of perceptions of mothers' transformational leadership and vice versa. Future research should confirm whether these findings are a function of multicollinearity and ensure that gender explanations can be excluded. Future research might also take a different approach, assessing the effects of the overall level of both parents' transformational leadership (Barling & Mendelson, in press). Second, we focused on perceptions of parental leadership behaviors in this study. Although other studies have shown that children are very accurate observers of their parents' behaviors and attitudes ( Barling et al. 1991 and Barling et al. 1998; Barling et al., in press; Kelloway & Watts 1994 and Whitbeck & Gecas 1988), it remains for future research to obtain parents' self reports of their parent-child interactions. Third, the sample size appears somewhat small View the MathML source. Nonetheless, it should be noted that (1) to be included, data on the same participant had to be obtained from several sources (namely, self, between one and five peers, and one coach), and (2) the CFI statistic, which accounts for sample size, indicated a very good fit of the model to the data. Fourth, generalizability of these findings to other contexts (e.g., classroom leadership, leadership in social situations or student government) remains to be examined. Last, future research should address whether the findings apply equally to both male and female adolescents because (1) findings suggest that females are more likely to exhibit transformational leadership behaviors than males Bass & Avolio 1994 and Bass, Avolio, & Atwater 1996, and (2) our findings showed differential relationships between the perceptions of mothers' and fathers? behaviors and one's own transformational leadership behavior. In conclusion, the findings from this study advance our understanding of leadership development in adolescents, as well as transformational leadership. These results indicate that the extent to which parents interact with their adolescents in a transformational manner affects the degree to which the adolescents themselves adopt these behaviors. These findings also show that those adolescents who display transformational leadership behaviors influence their peers, thereby extending our understanding of transformational leadership.Barling Mendelson 1999