تامین کننده و مشتری ارز در بازارهای بین المللی صنعتی: چشم انداز یکپارچه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|22841||2006||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 35, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 589–599
A significant body of knowledge pertaining to the management and organization of international distribution channels has evolved over the last three decades. More recent foci have been on relational forms of exchange and models that accommodate efficient exchange management within the context of supply chain systems. This review provides a framework for furthering knowledge along important dimensions that have received limited attention and offers a series of propositions for future scholarly work in the area. Key themes pursued in this study include (1) the impact of the international dimension of exchange; (2) the distinction between upstream and downstream forms of exchange; and (3) the influence of electronic commerce on the future of international exchange. We conclude this review by highlighting research challenges facing scholars.
Research on the management and organization of channels of distribution has grown rapidly over the last two decades with particular attention focused on buyer–seller relationships in business-to-business (B2B) markets (e.g., Anderson and Narus, 1990, Cannon and Perreault, 1999, Dwyer et al., 1987 and Heide, 1994). To a large extent, this interest reflects the recognition of the importance of distribution functions and strategies in the value chain. For example, increasingly concerned with growing competitive and cost pressures, many firms have sought to outsource products and services where they lack a competitive edge. Likewise, greater emphasis is now placed on supply chain systems (SCS) to address the firm's desire to achieve greater efficiencies in managing inventory without sacrificing product availability. A move in these directions necessarily demands greater involvement and relational interaction with suppliers and customers which, in turn, have raised the significance of such factors as trust and commitment for relationship development and channel performance. Concurrently, as markets are increasingly internationalized, greater attention is being paid to managing channels in a global context. Firms are increasingly aware that physical and cultural distance impact management methods and styles and have implications for the organization of international supply chains. A testimony to the perceived significance of global supply chain issues is provided by a recent series of articles in the Harvard Business Review around the theme of the “The 21st Century Supply Chain” (2004). Despite the richness of the literature dealing with the broader supply chain issue, scant attention has been paid to the firm's entire or complete supply chain, that is, the linkage between a supplier, its intermediary, and the intermediary's customer/end-user. Instead, the overwhelming majority of studies focus on either upstream or downstream relationships and exchanges. For example, a recent review of international relationship marketing literature uncovered 24 published papers, none of which examined the complete supply chain ( Samiee & Walters, 2003). It is further noteworthy that only 8 of these articles were reported to be truly international in scope (3 upstream and 5 downstream). Concurrently, insufficient attention has been given the impact of communication and trust on global supply chain management. For example, developments in real-time communication have important implications for international supply chain systems, particularly with respect to the functioning of markets. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review the literature and the relevant conceptual frameworks on international supply chain management (SCM) and to offer propositions with a view of the supply chain as a complete system, that is from the supplier to the customer from the perspective of the channel intermediary. The propositions provide a road map for ongoing scholarly activity and empirical inquiry, with particular attention focused on exploring the nature and the characteristics of upstream versus downstream exchange and market versus relational transactions. Given the critical importance of certain antecedents to relational exchanges, we shall also explore the role of culture, trust, and commitment in an international context as well as the notion of the “information-rich” intermediary and the significance of communication and learning activity in the global supply chain.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Two considerations in the broader literature pertaining to exchange relationships are noteworthy. First, whether exchange is market-based or relational, ultimately economic outcomes are crucial when considering the appropriateness of a particular arrangement. Assessing the economic viability of exchange relationships has been difficult with most studies relying on subjective measures of performance as proxies for future action and outcomes. Assessing economic performance within the context of a single international relationship is methodologically a difficult task. Also, as stated in the operational context section, firms tend to maintain a range of relationships conducting both relational and market-based exchanges. Thus, it is difficult to reach normative conclusions regarding a particular form of exchange. Successful replication of economically advantageous relationships is often problematic since relationship dynamics and their underlying contextual factors will invariably be different in each relationship. Second, everything else being equal, longevity in channel relationships is of utmost importance. Though some authors (e.g., Frazier, 1999) suggest that relationship marketing has reached its limits, it is simply too costly to form new relationships at each juncture or seek new suppliers or buyers with whom the firm has not previously engaged in business. The expenses associated with training and incorporating important supply chain system models and technologies to realize greater efficiencies can be overwhelming. It is thus understandable that suppliers seek to invest in IT to improve their relationships with their customers. It is also very important to look at the evolution of exchange relationships over time using longitudinal research designs to study supply chain systems. However, much of the literature has focused on surveys of exchange patterns between customers and suppliers at a particular point in time, even though the value of antecedent measures in a relational exchange is likely to vary from one time period to the next. Consider, for example, that trust, commitment, and relationship-specific investments are not static over time. The literature has contributed much to developing a better understanding of the constructs at work and has solidified a number of relationships between these constructs. Nevertheless, numerous gaps remain and a satisfactory universal model of international supply chain systems is yet to emerge. Although such a model may be impossible to erect, many gaps and contradictions in the literature can be addressed in the quest for a more comprehensive framework.