بررسی نقش عدالت در مقاصد ترک خدمت، رضایت شغلی و رفتار شهروندی سازمانی در صنعت مهمان نوازی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 29, Issue 1, March 2010, Pages 33–41
The relationship of organizational justice perceptions of hotel employees in North Cyprus with various work-related variables was investigated. A total of 208 employees and their managers filled out questionnaires. It was found that distributive justice tended to be a stronger predictor of all of the study variables compared to procedural justice. Findings suggest that the fairness of personal outcomes that employees receive may have more impact on turnover intentions, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) than the perceived fairness of a firm's procedures. It was also found that even though improved job satisfaction seems to be related to OCB, organizational justice seems to be the key factor that has a strong effect on both OCB and job satisfaction.
With increasing globalization and international competition, the importance of recruiting, retaining and managing resources that can help to increase competitiveness of organizations has become a crucial factor in the success of hospitality industry. Among these resources, human resources demand special attention. Human resources play a central role in the services sector. A primary reason for this is that the services are seen as inseparable from their provider. In this context, increasing employees’ job satisfaction, commitment to the organization and motivation will not only increase the extra-role behavior of the employees through organizational citizenship behavior, but it will also contribute to the increased competitiveness of hospitality sector organizations and lead to better future performance. Especially in the service industry, evidence suggests a strong linkage between job satisfaction and performance. Researchers found a significant positive relationship between employees’ job satisfaction and customer perceptions of service quality performance (Hartline and Keith, 1996 and Yoon et al., 2001). It is expected that satisfied employees will engage in better service delivery (Schmit and Allscheid, 1995) and this will positively influence customer confidence and word-of-mouth and as well as contribute to achieve customer loyalty. So, having a loyal base of satisfied customers within such a competitive environment, increases revenues, decreases costs and builds market share. Organizational justice has been shown to be related to employee outcomes such as job satisfaction (Fields et al., 2000). Thus, the concept of organizational justice and its consequences need to be understood by managers in the services sector. Managers need to have a better understanding of the role of organizational justice and its consequences in the hospitality industry. This concept is especially important for organizations that hope to develop more institutionalized policies and procedures. As a Mediterranean island, North Cyprus’ economy depends on tourism. In North Cyprus tourism is a significant contributor to the GDP. When we consider the scale disadvantage and the isolation that has been imposed on North Cyprus, the importance of the tourism sector can be seen clearly due to the unspoilt natural beauty and cultural heritage of North Cyprus where tourism remains a competitive sector. North Cyprus is considered to be an emerging new market for European tourists. In the wake of increasing competition and the dramatic changes occurring in the tourism industry in North Cyprus, there is a need for hotel managers and international investors to recognize the importance of service improvements in establishing a competitive advantage. The aim of the current study is to examine the relationship of justice perceptions of hotel employees in North Cyprus with various work-related variables such as employees’ organizational citizenship behaviors, their intentions to leave the hotel and seek other employment, and their overall job satisfaction. Previous researchers have shown that overall perceptions of fairness will influence work-related attitudes of employees (James, 1993 and Fulford, 2005). The current study looks at the perceptions of distributive, procedural and interactional justice to see if the impact that they have on work-related attitudes differs. The study analyzes whether procedural justice perceptions (about fairness of rules and procedures) can mainly influence organizational citizenship behaviors of the employees while distributive justice perceptions (about the outcomes that employees receive from the organization) may primarily influence turnover intentions. In addition we analyze how justice perceptions influence the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship of organizational justice with various work-related variables, i.e. organizational citizenship behavior, turnover intention, and job satisfaction. Correlations between employees’ organizational justice perceptions were significantly related to organizational citizenship behavior, turnover intentions, and job satisfaction. 6.1. Procedural justice and distributive justice Organizational justice was conceptualized as three separate dimensions: procedural justice, distributive justice, and interactional justice. Both procedural and distributive justice are important predictors of work outcomes, and organizational researchers should investigate both types of justice (Greenberg, 1987). Most of the researchers had suggested that procedural justice would be more related with organizational outcomes and the attitudes of employees toward the institution (Folger and Konovsky, 1989 and Lind and Tyler, 1988), whereas distributive justice would be a more important predictor of individual outcomes like intentions to quit and satisfaction with work (McFarlin and Sweeney, 1992). For example, in the extant literature, it is found that fairness of the procedure was a better explanatory variable for organizational citizenship behavior (Niehoff and Moorman, 1993 and Moorman, 1991). As opposed to these findings, results of the current study indicated that procedural justice did not tend to be a stronger predictor of turnover intentions and job satisfaction compared to distributive and interactional justice. However, distributive justice tended to be a stronger predictor of organizational citizenship behavior compared to procedural justice. Our findings suggest that the fairness of a firm's procedures may have a lesser impact on organizational citizenship behavior than the fairness of personal outcomes that employees receive. The fairness of firm's procedures has impact on turnover intentions and job satisfaction however, fairness of personal outcomes that employees receive still explains more of the variance on employees’ turnover intentions even after we have considered the part played by the impact of perceived fairness of the firm's procedures. We can state that for the employees in hospitality industry in North Cyprus, the role of perception of fairness in firm's procedures is very important with regard to personal outcomes such as job satisfaction and turnover intentions. However, the fairness of personal outcomes like fair distribution of pay and other rewards and perceived fairness in the managers’ interactions with their employees still impact the employees’ job satisfaction and turnover intentions. Furthermore, outcome fairness is more important with regard to organizational outcomes such as OCB as well. Why would the fairness of a firm's procedures have impact on personal outcomes (i.e. job satisfaction and turnover intentions) while outcome fairness have greater impact on organizational outcome (i.e. OCB), could be explained by using self-interest and group-value theory which have already been discussed in the literature review. The reason why procedural justice impacts job satisfaction is that employees can enhance their outcomes by asking for a wage increase, a promotion or better benefits and working conditions. The logic behind this is that procedural justice must exist within the organization; as such, employees must be able to influence the outcomes by participating in decision making (self-interest theory); hence in such cases, the employee's job satisfaction can be enhanced and influenced by procedural justice. The findings of Alexander and Ruderman (1987) supported the discussion above where they found that procedural fairness was significant factor influencing job satisfaction. Based on that, we may state that in the hospitality industry in North Cyprus, employees may be allowed to take part in decision making, thus they can have the feeling that they control the outcomes in one way or another. This result can also be used in explaining why procedural justice will impact turnover of employees. When the job satisfaction of employees is high, they may become highly committed to their organizations which in turn results in lower turnover rates. However, we also see from our results that even after procedural justice has been considered, there is still further impact of distributive and interactional justice on the turnover intentions and job satisfaction of the employees. Tyler (1989) stated that, as suggested by group-value theory, several non-control issues, such as neutrality in the decision-making procedure, trust in the decision maker, and evidence about social standing, may have a more powerful (strong, significant, crucial) effect on judgments of procedural justice than control issues. Violation or absence of any one of these non-control issues may result in low fairness perception of procedures. Thus employees may rely more on outcome than procedural fairness in such conditions. This can be the reason why distributive justice explained more variance in organizational citizenship behavior than procedural justice in our study. This can also be attributed to the distinct nature of hospitality industry where employees can easily shift to other firms due to the ease of finding other jobs. The skills of employees in this sector are easily transferred to similar positions in different organizations. It might be much more difficult for an employee in the manufacturing sector, who learns to use one specific machine, to transfer to another organization where the employee would probably have to learn to use different equipment. Based on the nature of the hospitality industry jobs, it is relatively easier for employees to change organizations with a shorter learning curve. 6.2. Organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction OCB was significantly explained by job satisfaction of employees. This may lead the practicing managers to assume that the way to increase OCB is through increasing job satisfaction which is usually associated with increasing salaries or improving working conditions. However, when we introduced organizational justice variables to the equation, and then looked at the effect of job satisfaction on OCB over and above the effect of organizational justice variables, there was no significant effect which leads us to conclude that organizational justice is a variable that has a strong effect on job satisfaction and OCB. Thus organizational justice results in increased or decreased job satisfaction and OCB at the same time. When we eliminate the role of organizational justice, the remaining effect of job satisfaction is not much on OCB. This means that practicing managers should aim to improve OCB through improved organizational justice; this will not only improve OCB but also lead to increased satisfaction. If managers focus on job satisfaction improvement through means other than increased organizational justice, the effect of this may be minimal on OCB. 6.3. Overall implications Central role played by employees in services sector should be taken into account seriously. The service quality depends on employee performance. Nadiri and Hussain (2005), in one of their studies, stated that customers visiting North Cyprus hotels have a narrow zone of tolerance which means that customers are not likely to accept heterogeneity in services provided by hotels. Therefore organizational justice perceptions of employees is very crucial in that sense where increased job satisfaction together with effective training will lead to increased service quality which finally results in increased customer satisfaction and loyalty. On the other hand, if employees do not perceive organizational justice they will not demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviors even if management attempts to keep them satisfied. Lack of perceived fairness may also lead to increased turnover of employees. Thus, high turnover may result in decrease in service quality. Even it may be more important for some services where customers will prefer to contact with the same service provider over the time. Results of the study were somewhat incongruent with extant literature. Procedural justice was a predictor for turnover intentions and job satisfaction of employees. However, distributive and interactional justice were even stronger predictors for turnover intentions and job satisfaction. This means that employees’ decision to leave the hotel that they have been working for is related to how the decisions about the allocation of rewards are made in the hotel. But even if the perceptions of fairness in decision-making procedures could be achieved, the actual rewards they have received will further explain their decisions to leave. As opposed to other studies, in our study distributive justice was a stronger predictor for organizational citizenship behavior compared to procedural justice. Employees’ OCB such as helping fellow workers or doing more than they are required to is more related to the fairness of the rewards they have been allocated. As the most important factor of production and service, employees play a significant role in the effectiveness of organizations. Creating a sense of belonging to the organization with loyal employees and fostering loyalty among employees can be a competitive advantage in today's business world. Therefore, managers in hospitality industry in North Cyprus with stiff domestic and international competition should come to understand that transparency in the fairness of firm's procedures and rewards will allow them to develop more loyal and committed employees. Hotel managers have to become aware of the extent their decisions and their methods of making the decisions influence the performance of their staff, and how this in turn impacts customer satisfaction. Managers should realize that in the hospitality industry employees have a need to see equitable rewards. Our findings show that employees not only look to see fair procedures in place for the distribution of rewards, but the actual fairness of the distributed rewards are also critical in both voluntary turnover decisions and organizational citizenship behaviors. It is not enough for managers to develop human resource management procedures that are fair, but it is also very important that the end results of the procedures are perceived as fair.