گروه بزرگسالان جوان در بازارهای نوظهور: بررسی هویت فرهنگی این گروه محلی ـ جهانی در بازار جهانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13901||2012||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 29, Issue 1, March 2012, Pages 43–54
Multinational firms perceive the young adult cohort in emerging markets as a relatively homogeneous segment that welcomes global brands and facilitates the entrance of these brands into emerging markets. Research suggests, however, that young adults are a more heterogeneous cohort in which individuals develop a glocal cultural identity that reflects their beliefs about both global phenomena and local culture. Our goal is to evaluate the glocal cultural identity of the young adult cohort based on three global–local identity beliefs (belief in global citizenship through global brands, nationalism, and consumer ethnocentrism) in the emerging markets of Russia (Studies 1 and 2) and Brazil (Study 2). We further assess the consumption practices of the glocal cultural identity segments in relation to global and local brands. Results across the two studies indicate three distinct segments, two of which, the Glocally-engaged and the Nationally-engaged, are consistent across countries. A third idiosyncratic segment emerged in each country, the Unengaged in Russia and the Globally-engaged in Brazil. The most viable segments for multinational firms are the Globally-engaged and the Glocally-engaged; these segments have an identity that is grounded in both global and local cultures and respond favorably to both global and local brands. Nationally-engaged consumers have a more localized identity; they are a more challenging target for firms offering only global brands. The Unengaged segment has weak global–local identity beliefs and low involvement with both global and local consumption practices.
The burgeoning young adult cohort is an attractive segment for multinational firms across the globe, particularly in emerging markets (Douglas and Craig, 1997, Douglas and Craig, 2006 and Kjeldgaard and Askegaard, 2006). This cohort has been characterized as innovative, open to trying new brands, and conscious of their identity (Lambert-Pandraud & Laurent, 2010) as well as having greater exposure to global media (Batra et al., 2000, Holt et al., 2004 and Zhou et al., 2010). Some researchers have argued that young adults are “global” in their identities and are at the forefront of globalization (Schlegel, 2001). Indeed, this global orientation is particularly attractive to multinational firms and global brands that frequently treat this cohort as homogenized and globally-oriented (Askegaard, 2006 and Hannerz, 2000). Consumer culture research, however, documents that, although consumers look to, integrate, and react to global consumer culture symbols and signs, they do so in relation to their local cultural discourses (Akaka and Alden, 2010, Ger and Belk, 1996, Hung et al., 2007 and Kjeldgaard and Askegaard, 2006); that is, consumers “embrace both the Lexus and the olive tree” (van Ittersum & Wong, 2010, p. 107). In this research, we draw upon work in cultural identity theory to further explore glocal cultural identity. Cultural identity is defined as “a broad range of beliefs and behaviors that one shares with members of one's community” ( Jensen, 2003 and Berry, 2001). As globalization has evolved, we now consider community in relation to one's global and local cultural milieu. Thus, we define glocal cultural identity as the coexistence of a broad range of beliefs and behaviors embedded to varying degrees in both local and global discourses. Because global and local orientations can conflict, an individual's glocal cultural identity may “account for the different and even opposing demands resulting from the processes of globalization and localization” ( Hermans & Dimaggio, 2007, p. 32). As we seek to understand glocal cultural identity, we recognize three forces at play: (1) globalization and localization coexist and fuel each other ( Akaka and Alden, 2010, Hermans and Dimaggio, 2007 and Robertson, 1995); (2) individuals reflexively combine traditional (local) and global identity markers in constructing their glocal cultural identity ( Dong and Tian, 2009, Mazzarella, 2004, Varman and Belk, 2009 and Zhao and Belk, 2008); and (3) brands constitute a key part of cultural identity ( Askegaard, 2006, Kjeldgaard and Askegaard, 2006 and Kjeldgaard and Ostberg, 2007). Specifically in contextualizing glocal cultural identity, we focus on one belief that reflects the influence of globalization, i.e., the belief in global citizenship through global brands ( Steenkamp et al., 2003 and Strizhakova et al., 2008a). This belief embodies the embracing of both global culture and global brands as symbols of the global consumer culture. We also examine two beliefs that reflect dialogical influences of localization: nationalism ( Dong and Tian, 2009, Douglas and Craig, 2011 and Varman and Belk, 2009) and consumer ethnocentrism ( Shimp & Sharma, 1987). Consistent with how national identity has been conceptualized in past research ( Keillor, Hult, Erffmeyer, & Babakus, 1996), nationalism reflects the salience of one's nation and local culture, and ethnocentrism reflects preferences for locally-produced brands and products. Our work focuses on the young adult cohort within which the glocal cultural identity is particularly prominent. This cohort is less settled in their identity and more open to sharing varied beliefs and behavioral practices with certain global and local cultural communities ( Jensen, 2003, Jensen, 2011, Kjeldgaard and Askegaard, 2006 and Mazzarella, 2003). Specifically, we use cluster analysis to profile individuals on their glocal cultural identity as an integration of their beliefs about global citizenship through global brands, nationalism, and consumer ethnocentrism. Next, in relation to these profiles, we assess the following specific consumer branding practices: 1) consumer involvement with global and local brands, 2) use of global and local brands as quality and self-identity signals, and 3) purchases of global and local brands. We focus on the emerging markets of Russia and Brazil (Study 1 in Russia in 2009; Study 2 in Russia and Brazil in 2010). Our work makes several important contributions to research on cultural identity and consumption beliefs and practices, with implications for branding, global and local brands, and brand management. First, we contribute to current theory on glocal cultural identity (Ger and Belk, 1996, Jensen, 2003, Jensen, 2011, Kjeldgaard and Askegaard, 2006 and Varman and Belk, 2009) by considering the theory's grounding in three global–local identity beliefs, including one global cultural belief (belief in global citizenship through global brands) and two local cultural beliefs (nationalism and consumer ethnocentrism). Therefore, we extend the previous research that developed measures of either global or national identity dimensions ( Der-Karabetian and Ruiz, 1997 and Keillor et al., 1996 Zhang & Khare, 2009) to incorporate a profiling approach as an alternative strategy to understanding glocal cultural identity. Second, we further examine glocal cultural identity profiles in relation to branding practices. Specifically, we extend prior research on consumer attitudes toward global and local products ( Steenkamp & de Jong, 2010) to examine involvement with brands, consumers' use of brands as signals of quality and self-identity, and purchases of global and local brands. Third, our focus is on the young adult cohort in the emerging markets of post-socialist Russia and post-colonial Brazil; these young adults are an attractive target for multinational firms and global brands but have received little research attention ( Douglas & Craig, 2011). Our research draws upon work on globalization and cultural identity in consumer culture theory and in quantitative marketing paradigms and consequently helps integrate and bridge these two perspectives. Collectively, our findings suggest that multinational and local companies need to be cognizant of the complex and changing nature of young adults' glocal cultural identity in emerging markets, as they offer promising opportunities for potential growth ( Burgess and Steenkamp, 2006 and Wilson and Purushothaman, 2003). In the following section, we discuss our conceptual framework, focusing on the cultural identity formation among young adults in the age of globalization, conceptualizing glocal cultural identity, and linking this identity to branding practices. Next, we provide an overview of our research in Russia and Brazil, including a brief discussion of the socio-historical differences and similarities in these two countries that are pertinent to the formation of the glocal cultural identity. We then describe our two studies and findings in detail and conclude with a discussion, the managerial implications, and future research opportunities.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
As emerging nations build their economic power, they are also empowering their national identity in a world filled with global cooperation, global alliances and global media. Nationalistic overtones are frequently mixed with global integration and openness in political and economic dialogues within these emerging markets, impacting the transformation of consumer cultural identity. This domain of research and the examination of these transformations as they relate specifically to glocal cultural identity, as well as variations in meanings of global and national citizenship, will be of growing interest as these emerging countries and their brands take the global stage.