هزینه های اقتصادی و کنترل آسیب زباله های دریایی در منطقه آسیا و اقیانوس آرام
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|19165||2011||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
نسخه انگلیسی مقاله همین الان قابل دانلود است.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله بر اساس تعداد کلمات مقاله انگلیسی محاسبه می شود.
این مقاله تقریباً شامل 7977 کلمه می باشد.
هزینه ترجمه مقاله توسط مترجمان با تجربه، طبق جدول زیر محاسبه می شود:
|شرح||تعرفه ترجمه||زمان تحویل||جمع هزینه|
|ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت عادی||هر کلمه 90 تومان||12 روز بعد از پرداخت||717,930 تومان|
|ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت فوری||هر کلمه 180 تومان||6 روز بعد از پرداخت||1,435,860 تومان|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 54, Issue 9, September 2011, Pages 643–651
Oceans in the Asia-Pacific region are being impacted by increasing levels of marine debris, with many governments unaware of the extent that marine debris damages marine industries, the economy and the marine environment. We examine the economic costs associated with marine debris and present a simple marine debris cycle model to discuss the costs and benefits of prevention, clean-up and the benefits of using biodegradable materials. For the 21 economies of the Asia- Pacific rim we estimate that marine debris-related damage to marine industries costs US$1.26bn per annum in 2008 terms. Marine debris imposes an avoidable cost that can be reduced through policy implementation to economically optimal levels. Options to control debris, using regulations, technical intervention and market based instruments, may have a role. In this pollution policy area, additional economic cost data are required to inform governments on the most economical ways to control levels of marine debris.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A determination of the societal cost impact of marine debris is limited by information on direct costs and lack of data systems collect marine debris cost data. There is insufficient recognition by government of the costs currently being imposed on society by marine debris. Of these diverse costs we estimate that marine debris damage to marine industry in the Asia-Pacific region costs $1.26bn annually in 2008 terms. Current data collection systems are insufficient to verify this estimate and yet marine industries are aware of the cost impost from marine debris. Lack of available data on marine debris clean-up costs, or non-market values of marine life impacted by marine debris, did not enable these costs to be calculated. The costs of marine debris damage and clean-up need to be collected in order for all levels of government to set marine debris control priorities. Currently many policy costs are being incurred with limited knowledge of the benefits accruing from these expenditures or consideration of the alternative policies that could be as, or more effective. Lack of data on the costs of marine debris inhibits such approaches developing. A mixed policy strategy which is more than just regulation is required, examining market based instruments and incorporating community initiatives to address the marine debris problem. The assessment of costs suggests that prevention of debris entering the water course is a priority, as it stops the growth of the marine debris stock with its environmental damage. However data is insufficient to make specific recommendations on the relative costs of alternative strategies. A significant change in awareness of governments and additional community education in the Asia-Pacific rim is essential to reduce the amount of debris entering the oceans. Recognising the size of the different costs imposed on industry, leisure opportunities and the environment, may help to inform nations, communities and policy makers about the need to reduce marine debris. Appraising the national costs of marine debris damage, prevention and clean-up should be the first step for governments and policy makers in addressing this important issue.