تمایل به برقراری ارتباط با طبیعت: اثر طرد شدگی بر رفتار زیست محیطی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 42, June 2015, Pages 116–122
Three experiments tested whether ostracism increases ecological behaviors through increased desires to connect to nature. Compared with non-ostracized participants, ostracized participants reported higher desires to connect to nature (Experiments 1 and 3) and were more willing to behave ecologically (Experiments 2 and 3). Furthermore, increased desires to connect to nature mediated the effect of ostracism on ecological inclinations (Experiment 3). Together, these findings suggest that people try to cope with the pain of ostracism by connecting to the natural environment and behaving ecologically. They also highlight the significance of desires for nature connectedness in explaining why ostracism increases ecological behavior. Implications are discussed.
The opening quote from Zhuangzi, an ancient Chinese philosopher, suggests that people are inseparable from nature. Western ecopsychologists share a similar view; they assert that people have a strong innate inclination to connect to nature (the biophilia hypothesis; Kellert et al., 1993 and Wilson, 1984). However, in modern societies, people may behave in ways that damage natural environments by over-consuming and under-conserving natural resources (Oskamp, 2000). As the sustainability of natural resources is critical for human well-being, the question of how to achieve such sustainability and promote ecological lifestyles has become a hot social and research issue in most modern societies. Environmental and social psychologists have attempted to understand the antecedents that can promote ecological inclinations and behaviors, almost exclusively from a perspective that focuses on people's perceived relationships between their self and nature. In particular, research has found that individuals who dispositionally feel connected to nature are more inclined to behave ecologically (e.g., Mayer and Frantz, 2004 and Tam, 2013). However, relatively little research effort has been devoted to examine how interpersonal experiences might influence nature-related and ecological behaviors. Given that social and interpersonal experiences often guide people through events in daily life (see Baumeister & Leary, 1995), which may provide another useful perspective in understanding who are more inclined towards ecological behavior. The present research aims to fill this knowledge gap by testing a novel prediction that ostracism increases ecological inclinations through increased desires to connect to nature. Because the need to belong is one of the most fundamental human needs (Baumeister & Leary, 1995), people should be motivated to restore their thwarted feelings of belonging following ostracism (Williams, 2007 and Williams, 2009). As natural environments are readily perceived as sources of bonding and connection (Kellert & Wilson, 1993), and exposure to nature can ameliorate life difficulties and work stresses (e.g., Hartig et al., 2003 and Mayer et al., 2009), people may seek to connect to nature when they encounter interpersonal setbacks, such as ostracism. In this regard, ostracized people should have increased desires to connect to nature, especially when there are no clear indicators of possible reconnection with other individuals. We further predict that increased desires to connect to nature should carry behavioral implications. If ostracized people have increased desires to connect to nature, they should also be more ecologically-oriented to protect natural environments because nature represents an important source that can help them more effectively cope with the pain of ostracism. To summarize, the present research has two aims. First, it aims to provide the first experimental evidence that ostracism increases people's desires to connect to nature (Experiments 1 and 3) and increases their inclinations to engage in ecological behaviors (Experiments 2 and 3). Second, it aims to show that increased desires to connect to nature mediate the effect of ostracism on ecological inclinations (Experiment 3).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Ostracism is inevitable and detrimental, which may motivate people to behave in ways that can restore the feelings of connection and belonging. To date, no experimental research has examined the potential impact of ostracism on people's desires to connect to nature or their ecological inclinations. The current research showed that ostracism increased ecological inclinations, which was mediated by increased desires to connect to nature. These findings carry both theoretical and practical implications for the critical role of nature in one's coping with negative interpersonal experiences.