اثر تأیید خود بر تعصب جنسی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|38942||2010||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 46, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 276–285
Abstract In three experiments, we explored the impact of a self-affirmation treatment on sexual prejudice (i.e., negative attitudes toward gays and lesbians). Studies 1 and 2 found that participants who were affirmed by valuing relationships with family and friends were significantly more prejudiced than participants who were affirmed by valuing other self-relevant characteristics. Relative to a non-affirmed control, the family/friends affirmation did not actually increase prejudice; however, other affirmations decreased bias. Study 3 replicated the finding that prejudice was higher among participants who affirmed to family/friends compared to those who affirmed to other values, and showed a mediator of the effect: the endorsement of traditional family values. That is, affirming to family/friends was associated with support for family values, which was positively associated with prejudice. These findings add to a growing body of evidence demonstrating the potential for self-affirmation to reduce bias, but establish that the type of value affirmed is an important consideration. Specifically, familial-based affirmations may undermine reduction of sexual prejudice because they remind individuals of values that many people see as being in conflict with expressing tolerant attitudes toward gays and lesbians.
Introduction Sexual prejudice is a broad term that encompasses all forms of bias based upon sexual orientation ( Herek, 2000). Although this definition includes bias directed toward heterosexuals, such prejudice is typically directed toward persons with homosexual or bisexual orientations. Research indicates that sexual prejudice is widespread in the United States, with nearly half of the adult population regarding homosexual behavior as wrong and persons with non-heterosexual orientations negatively ( Herek, 2002 and Pew Research Center, 2003). As a consequence, gay and lesbian individuals often find themselves to be the targets of harassment and discrimination. For instance, one in three gay men and one in eight lesbians report having experienced personal violence or property crimes as a result of their sexual orientation ( Herek, 2008). Sexual prejudice is also evident in the current controversy surrounding legalized same-sex relationships. Attempts to extend equal rights to same-sex couples are often met with fierce resistance by politicians and the public alike (Schmitt, Lehmiller, & Walsh, 2007). Perhaps nowhere was this more evident in recent history than in the 2008 US election where voters in the state of California passed Proposition 8, which effectively repealed the legal marriage status of same-sex couples that had previously been granted by the state’s Supreme Court (Morain & Garrison, 2008). The following year, voters in the state of Maine repealed a same-sex marriage law enacted by the state legislature. Given the prevalence of sexual prejudice and the harmful consequences often experienced by its targets, it is important for researchers to consider potential means of reducing this form of bias. The goal of the present research was to experimentally test a novel means of attenuating sexual prejudice. In a series of studies, we consider whether administering a self-affirmation treatment to heterosexual participants would reduce bias against gays and lesbians. This technique has been shown in previous research to reduce defensive biases against other marginalized groups (Adams et al., 2006 and Unzueta and Lowery, 2008).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Conclusions Self-affirmation has been established as a means of reducing hostile and defensive biases against various groups (e.g., Adams et al., 2006, Fein and Spencer, 1997 and Unzueta and Lowery, 2008). The present research builds upon this work by demonstrating that it can also be applied in the case of sexual prejudice, a pervasive social bias associated with a number of negative effects. Nonetheless, our findings suggest important boundary conditions for self-affirmation in this context. Specifically, if individuals are given the opportunity to affirm an aspect of the self that justifies or promotes anti-gay bias, self-affirmation is unlikely to result in prejudice reduction.