کاربرد تئوری یادگیری در نجات اسب در انگلستان و ولز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|122775||2017||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Volume 190, May 2017, Pages 82-89
In England and Wales the welfare of animals, including horses, is protected by the Animal Welfare Act 2006. Welfare agencies play a role in the investigation of equine welfare concerns and catching, containing, transporting and boarding (caring for) horses that have been rescued. Horses regularly have to be rescued in difficult circumstances from challenging and potentially dangerous environments. Equitation science uses a multi-disciplinary approach to objectively explain horse-human interactions and determine the efficacy of horse training practices and their impact on the horse. This paper reviews common horse rescue practices used by welfare agencies in the UK and evaluates them using a learning theory-based equitation science framework to determine whether they are effective, humane and safe. Due to the debilitated state many horses are found in physical health is often prioritised over psychological well-being, and the rescue process itself has the potential to negatively impact on the horseâs mental state, for example through flooding and learned helplessness. Anecdotal evidence suggests that rescue personnel may not fully understand how horses learn, particularly with regards to the use of negative reinforcement. In addition, there may be a lack of appreciation that all horse-human interactions are potentially part of a learning process that result in the horse being trained. Rescue practices may inadvertently trigger fear responses and behaviours indicative of conflict, potentially putting human safety at risk and contributing to the development of fearful, dangerous and/or unwanted learned behaviours that require re-training at a later date. Ultimately, such practices may negatively impact on the horseâs recovery and affect the charityâs ability to successfully re-home the horse. This review highlights the need for welfare agencies to continue to develop their knowledge and skills in the light of new evidence, particularly with regards to the ethology of horses, their mental abilities and how they learn. Further research is also needed to elucidate the true impact rescue practices have on both the short and long-term welfare of the horse.