تاثیر اولویت های شخصی و انگیزش بر روی مصرف میوه و سبزی مادران شرکت کننده در طرح WIC و کودکان در آتلانتا، GA
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|29935||2014||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, Volume 46, Issue 1, January 2014, Pages 62–67
Objective To determine the effect of psychosocial and sociodemographic factors on consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) for women and children participating in the Atlanta Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Methods Participants (n = 249) were selected from 2 Atlanta Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children agencies. Data from this analysis were collected from in-person interviews. The dichotomous dependent variable was whether participants met recommended intakes for F&V. Independent variables were personal preference and motivation factors of F&V consumption, and sociodemographic factors. Bivariate analysis determined significant factors to include in logistic models. Results Only 27.7% of mothers and 44.2% of their oldest child consumed > 5 servings of F&V daily. Not knowing how to prepare F&Vs and spoilage of F&V before eating them were significantly related to F&V consumption of mothers. Conclusions and Implications Food storage and preparation resulted in significant differences in meeting criteria for F&V consumption. Future initiatives should include cooking classes and emphasize food preparation techniques.
Introduction Fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is associated with decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.1, 2, 3 and 4 In the United States, only a quarter of adults and 1 in 5 children meet the suggested daily intake of 5 servings of F&V.5 and 6 In addition, 51% of these children consume < 1 serving of vegetables daily.6 Low-income populations have been linked to poor dietary patterns, specifically with lower intake of F&V.5, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 The lack of availability and convenience of healthy foods in low-income neighborhoods results in lower F&V intake.7, 9 and 12 The government has created food subsidies to help supplement the nutrition intake of low-income pregnant women and children < 5 years of age.13, 14, 15, 16 and 17 The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) was established in the 1970s to provide supplemental nutrition to low-income pregnant and breast-feeding women along with infants and children up to 5 years old who are at nutritional risk.13 In addition to WIC subsidies, the Farmer's Market Nutrition Program was introduced in 1992 to provide coupons for WIC recipients to receive fresh, locally grown F&V.17 In 2007, WIC revised their package to provide opportunities to increase F&V intake.13 and 17 Both the Farmer's Market Nutrition Program and the updated WIC package are policy-based approaches aimed to increase the intake of F&V in pregnant women, infants, and children.13, 15 and 16 Low intake of F&V in low-income populations has been attributed to multiple sociodemographic and psychosocial factors.9, 18, 19, 20 and 21 Sociodemographic variables of race, education, marital status, and smoking status were examined in prior studies, with mixed outcomes.9, 18 and 21 Psychosocial factors of perceived environment, self-efficacy, knowledge, attitude, and social support are evidenced to influence F&V consumption, especially in low-income populations.9, 19 and 20 These studies have shown that self-efficacy and positive reinforcement are correlated with F&V consumption. Moreover, many studies have shown that sociodemographic factors influence the effect of psychosocial factors on F&V intake.22 The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial factors (personal preferences and motivation for healthy eating habits) and the consumption of F&V among mothers and children participating in the WIC program in the metro-Atlanta area. Sociodemographic factors were also examined as possible confounders of the relationship with F&V consumption. Understanding personal preferences and motivation will allow the WIC program to improve the effectiveness of its nutrition education efforts to increase F&V consumption
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A total of 249 participants completed the baseline survey. For both mother and child, fruit juice and fruit had the highest average intake (mean intake per day, 1.12 and 1.08 servings for mothers, and 1.94 and 1.39 servings for child, respectively) (Table 2). Carrots, potatoes, and green salad had the lowest average daily consumption for both mother and child (0.23, 0.24, and 0.36 servings, respectively). The average total daily intake of F&V among mothers was 3.92 servings, and 5.25 for the oldest child. Only 27.7% of mothers and 44.2% of oldest children met the suggested daily intake of 5 servings of F&V. Table 2. WIC Mothers and Their Oldest Child's Average Fruit and Vegetable Consumption (n = 248) Mother Oldest Child F&V consumption categories, mean (SD) Average fruit juice intake/d 1.12 (1.17) 1.94 (1.56) Average fruit intake/d 1.08 (1.20) 1.39 (1.23) Average green salad intake/d 0.36 (0.48) 0.26 (0.46) Average potato intake/d 0.24 (0.49) 0.32 (0.67) Average carrot intake/d 0.23 (0.55) 0.28 (0.61) Average other vegetable intake/d 0.98 (1.12) 1.05 (0.82) Average daily intake of F&V, mean (SD) 3.92 (2.63) 5.25 (3.26) Mothers eating ≥ 5 servings of F&V/d, % 27.7 44.2 Average daily consumption of F&V by mother, range 0–18 0–21 WIC indicates Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Table options Over 85% of mothers disagreed with the following statements: (1) Did not grow up eating many F&V; (2) Do not like the taste of F&V; (3) Family does not like F&V; (4) F&V take too much time to prepare; (5) Fresh F&V are too big or bulky to carry home. Moreover, between 70% and 85% of mothers disagreed with the statements of: (1) Do not know how to choose fresh F&V; (2) Do not know which F&V are in season; (3) Do not know how to store fresh F&V; and (4) Fresh F&V cost too much. None of the responses for these psychosocial factors varied by whether the mother met the suggested daily intake of 5 servings of F&V. The demographic characteristics did not differ significantly by whether the F&V criterion was met (Table 3). However, those who did not meet the criterion showed a higher percentage of being concerned about not having enough money. Table 3. Sociodemographic Characteristics of WIC Mothers by Dichotomous Fruit and Vegetable Consumption Criteria Characteristic/Scale Met Criteria (n = 69) Did Not Meet Criteria (n = 180) Total Percentage (n = 249) Categorical age, y (%) 18–24 32.9 29.6 30.5 25–29 30.0 27.9 28.5 30–34 12.9 22.4 19.7 ≥ 35 24.3 20.1 21.3 Race, % White 0 0 0 Black 100 99.4 99.6 Asian 0 0 0 Native Hawaiian 0 0 0 American Indian 0 0 0 Other/mixed 0 0.6 0.4 Marital status, % Single 75.7 76.0 75.9 Married/unmarried couple 15.7 15.6 15.7 Separated/divorced/widowed 8.6 8.4 8.4 Education, % < High school 12.9 16.3 13.3 High school graduate 51.4 46.6 48.0 Some college 28.6 31.5 30.7 College graduate 7.1 5.6 6.1 Number in household (SD) Children 2.5 (1.4) 2.4 (1.3) 2.4 (1.3) Adults 1.9 (1.0) 1.8 (1.0) 1.2 (1.0) Concerned about money, % Yes 22.9 33.7 30.7 No 77.1 66.3 69.4 WIC indicates Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Table options Of the 15 independent variables, only 3 showed a significant difference between mothers who met criteria and those who did not: “Already eat plenty of F&V” (P = .04); “Fruits and vegetables often spoil before I eat them” (P = .02); and “Do not know how to prepare most F&V” (P = .04) ( Table 1). For children, only 2 variables had a significant different in outcome of child's F&V intake: “Already eat plenty of F&V” (P = .04); and “Concerned about money” (P = .02) ( Table 4). Table 4. Factors Affecting WIC Mothers' Oldest Child's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption (n = 248) Parameter Estimate OR CI P Did not grow up eating many F&V −0.00 1.00 (0.64–1.55) 1.00 Do not like the taste of F&V 0.14 1.15 (0.74–1.77) .54 Already eat plenty of F&V −0.39 0.68 (0.47–0.99) .04∗ Do not know when F&V in season 0.17 1.00 (0.00–0.27) .33 Difficult to store fresh F&V 0.39 1.48 (0.91–2.41) .11 F&V often spoil before I eat them 0.19 1.22 (0.90–1.63) .20 Do not know how to prepare most F&V 0.36 1.43 (0.88–2.33) .15 Fresh F&V cost too much 0.06 1.06 (0.76–1.48) .73 Age 0.03 1.03 (1.00–1.06) .08 Race 3.50 33.06 (0–1,000) .99 Marital status 0.25 1.28 (0.85–1.94) .24 Education −0.13 0.88 (0.64–1.21) .44 Children in household, n −0.02 0.98 (0.81–1.19) .82 Adults in household, n −0.22 0.81 (0.63–1.03) .09 Concerned about money 0.69 1.99 (1.13–3.50) .02∗ CI indicates confidence interval; F&V, fruits and vegetables; OR, odds ratio; WIC, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children. Note: The statistical test used was bivariate logistic analysis. ∗ P < .05 is considered significant.