توسعه فراشناخت در کودکان با استعداد خداداد: تحقیقات آتی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Developmental Review, Volume 15, Issue 1, March 1995, Pages 1–37
This article provides an overview of the existing literature on the development of metacognition in gifted children and emphasizes needed areas of research. Research examining individual differences in the development of declarative metacognitive knowledge, cognitive monitoring, and the regulation of strategies is reviewed. Differences between patterns of gifted and nongifted development differ depending on the type of metacognition being examined. Specifically, research on declarative metacognitive knowledge and far transfer shows a monotonic relationship between metacognitive development and giftedness. Research on spontaneous use of a variety of both simple and complex strategies is suggestive of an acceleration hypothesis (with giftedness effects increasing with age). These effects, however, may be domain-specific. Finally, research on cognitive monitoring suggests only developmental (but no giftedness) effects. As a consequence, we argue that it is important to differentiate the aspect of metacognition being examined before drawing conclusions about the relationships among metacognition, giftedness, and development. Additionally, an intelligence theory approach may be a much less profitable paradigm for understanding the relationship of metacognition and giftedness than an exceptional performance paradigm.