فرکانس کابوس، شخصیت و آسیب شناسی روانی حاد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|35040||1999||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 27, Issue 5, November 1999, Pages 843–851
There are currently contradictory findings on whether frequency of having nightmares is related to psychopathology. Common drawbacks of many of the studies are the use of a single retrospective questionnaire to assess nightmare frequency and the measurement of stable traits rather than acute stress. In the present study 124 subjects (males, n=32; females, n=92; age 18–70 years) completed the EPQ-RS, the General Health Questionnaire-30, Gough's Creativity Scale and, over 14 days, a contemporaneous log of the incidence of nightmares. The 14-day log method produced a larger estimate of mean nightmare frequency (41.7 per year) than is common with retrospective measures; there was no significant difference in frequency of nightmares between males and females. Nightmare frequency correlated significantly with GHQ acute psychopathology (rsp=0.26, p=0.002), with comparable scores for females (rsp=0.28) and males (rsp=0.23). Females had significant correlations of nightmare frequency with age (rsp=−0.26, p=0.007), dream recall (rsp=0.32, p=0.001) and EPQ-Lie score (rsp=−0.22, p=0.020), whereas males did not: following regression analysis only females had significant determinants of nightmare frequency, these being GHQ acute psychopathology (β=0.300, p=0.003) and age (β=−0.232, p=0.020). Neither sex had significant correlations of nightmare frequency with creativity, extraversion, neuroticism or psychoticism.
A nightmare is a very distressing dream that is clearly recalled (Belicki, 1992a), usually occurring in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, in the later part of the night, and sometimes with an increase in autonomic measures such as pulse or respiration (Hartmann, 1984). It has been estimated that the average incidence of nightmares in adults is one or two per year (Hartmann, 1984) and that 10–25% of the general and college student population experience one or more nightmares per month (Bearden, 1994). Some studies have found a relationship between nightmare frequency and psychopathology (Hersen, 1971, Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Sivan, & Cooper, 1987 and Hartmann, 1989; Nielsen, Ouellet, Warnes, Cartier, Malo, & Montplaisir, 1997) and with concern about death (Feldman & Hersen, 1967). Kales et al. (1980) found subjects with nightmares scored significantly higher than controls on neurotic and psychotic scales of the MMPI, Lang and O'Connor (1984) found significant correlations between EPQ-N and both nightmare frequency and intensity and nightmare frequency has been positively correlated with anxious–distractable and guilt–fear of failure patterns of daydreams (Starker, 1974 and Starker, 1984–1985). However, Hartmann, Russ, van der Kolk, Falke, and Oldfield (1981) found an association between frequent nightmares and schizotypal and borderline personality, as did Levin and Raulin (1991), but not with high MMPI neuroticism, and Belicki (1992a) found that current psychopathology is not related to nightmare frequency. Problematic is that these conflicting studies relied on retrospective self-reports of nightmare frequency rather than contemporaneous daily log measures. Such reports can be biased by a variety of factors, including the ease with which examples of nightmares can be accessed during recall (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) and the influence of mood-congruent recall (Clark & Teasdale, 1982). The use of contemporaneous logs yields a nightmare frequency over 2.5 (for students: Wood & Bootzin, 1990; Salvio, Wood, Schwartz, & Eichling, 1992) or 10 (for elderly subjects: Salvio et al., 1992) times the estimates based on retrospective reports. Using daily logs, Cellucci and Lawrence (1978) in a longitudinal study found state anxiety correlated within-subjects with the presence of nightmares, Wood and Bootzin (1990) found no relationship between nightmare frequency and trait anxiety and Berquier and Ashton (1992) found that subjects with frequent nightmares show global, mainly neurotic psychopathology, but not psychoticism on the EPQ. A second problem with most of the studies is that only stable traits were measured. As a result of the Hartmann, 1984 and Hartmann, 1998 findings that frequency and severity of nightmares are associated with levels of acute stress, we assessed psychopathology by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldberg & Williams, 1988), which is concerned with current life-events rather than stable traits (Goodchild & Duncan-Jones, 1985). The GHQ is a global measure of acute psychological distress, is sensitive and specific in discriminating between cases and normals (Goldberg & Williams, 1988) and is associated with general and work stress and social competence (Cook, Young, Taylor, & Bedford, 1996). However, as there are reports of nightmares being related to schizotypy (Levin, 1998) and the onset of psychosis Hartmann, 1984 and Fennig, Salganik, & Chayat, 1992 and relationships between nightmare distress and borderline personality (Claridge, Davis, Bellhouse, & Kaptein, 1998) and neurotic psychopathology (Belicki, 1992a), we also investigated the relationship with EPQ-P and N but, because of the above conflicting experimental results, and due to the Hartmann (1984) note that many adults continue to have nightmares for long periods without any progression towards psychosis, we did not predict significant correlations. We used the EPQ to assess psychoticism as this measure is relevant to both schizotypy Claridge, Robinson, & Birchall, 1983, Eysenck & Eysenck, 1991 and Chapman, Chapman, & Kwapil, 1994 and borderline disorders (Claridge, Clark, & Davis, 1997). The EPQ was also used to assess any relationship with extraversion, again making no prediction: Spanos, McNulty, DuBrevil, Pires, and Burgess (1995) had found a non-significant correlation between EPQ-E and nightmare frequency, but night terrors were included in the calculation and a simple four-point Likert-type scale was used to assess nightmare frequency. Findings of lifelong nightmare sufferers scoring higher on psychopathology have generally occurred in studies using a large age range, such as Berquier and Ashton (1992), with mean age 34.7 years and range 18–63 years, and Kales et al. (1980) with age range 19–77 years old. Two studies that did not find a relationship between psychopathology and nightmare frequency, Belicki, 1992a and Wood & Bootzin, 1990, were of students, mean ages 20.7 and 19 years, respectively, the former with range 18–38. We therefore used a range of employment in our sample and also a wide range of ages. Kales et al. (1980) found that the majority of respondents to a newspaper advertisement for people with nightmares were female and, using retrospective questionnaires, Starker, 1984–1985 and Levin, 1994 found females have significantly more nightmares than males. However, Hartmann (1984) suggests that such findings may be due to men being less willing than women to admit to having nightmares, which indicates an effect of social desirability. We used the lie scale of the EPQ to assess whether social desirability is negatively correlated with nightmare frequency, although, because of the immediacy of filling in the confidential logs in the present study, we considered that any such social desirability effect would anyway be reduced. Salvio et al. (1992) had found non-significant correlations between nightmare frequency and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale scores for both students and elderly subjects; using the EPQ-L allowed us to assess lower levels of defensiveness than that measured by the Marlowe-Crowne scale (Plante & Schwartz, 1990). Using a retrospective measure Belicki and Belicki (1982) showed that those in more artistic or creative fields tend to have more nightmares than those in fields such as engineering or physical education, but this relationship with creativity was not replicated by Spadafora and Hunt, 1990 and Levin et al., 1991 or Belicki (1992a), or by Wood and Bootzin (1990), who measured artistic interests by a Career Assessment Inventory. Furthermore, using biographical data, Rothenberg (1971) reported that there are few nightmares among established artists. However, Robert Louis Stevenson, Bram Stoker and Mary Shelley used nightmares in their work (Frayling, 1996) and, studying 38 adults who have nightmares at least once per week, Hartmann et al. (1981) found that they worked in creative jobs or had the potential for artistic achievement. The present study aimed to extend previous work on individual differences in nightmare frequency by using a daily sleep log, rather than a retrospective questionnaire, and correlating nightmare frequency with acute psychopathology, neuroticism, psychoticism, extraversion, social desirability (EPQ-L) and self-assessed creativity. We also assessed frequency of dream recall, predicting, from Belicki (1992a), that it would correlate positively with nightmare frequency and aimed to replicate findings that the incidence of nightmares decreases with age (Hartmann, 1984 and Salvio et al., 1992; Wood, Bootzin, Quan, & Klink, 1993).