سوابق مبتنی بر مولفه: یک روش جدید برای ضبط کار طراحی معامله
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|9238||2009||16 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Advanced Engineering Informatics, Volume 23, Issue 3, July 2009, Pages 332–347
The growing pressures from global competitive markets signal the inevitable challenge for companies to rapidly design and develop new successful products. To continually improve design quality and efficiency, companies must consider how to speed design processes, minimise human-errors, avoid unnecessary iterations, and sustain knowledge embedded in the design process. All of these issues strongly concern one topic: how to make and exploit records of design activities. Using process modelling ideas, this paper introduces a new method called component-based records, in place of traditional design reports. The proposed method records transaction elements of the actual design processes undertaken in a design episode, which aims to continually improve design quality and efficiency, reduce designers’ workload for routine tasks, and sustain competitiveness of companies.
To survive today’s fierce competitive market; engineering companies must continually design and develop successful new products that have higher quality with lower cost and shorter product introduction lead times. Effective and efficient design processes are crucial in determining the capabilities, costs, and other attributes of products. Such processes depend on the knowledge and creativity of designers and the efficiency with which resources for designing are used. With the change towards whole product lifecycle support and the increase in the knowledge-intensivity and complexity of modern-day design tasks, recording of the information, knowledge, and experiences accumulated in designs is becoming particularly important today, not only for design of new products but also for product lifecycle support. Thus, major challenges for companies include: how to implement an appropriate design process to improve the performance of its products; how to make effective records of the work that is carried out in design activities; how to standardise and automate repetitive work to minimise error and rework in the design process; and how to capture the knowledge embedded in the design process to ensure the sustained competitiveness of a company. To respond to these challenges, various models and techniques for description or planning of design processes (i.e. design process model) have been proposed. Broadly, a process model can be descriptive, prescriptive, or have aspects of both . A descriptive process model attempts to capture tacit knowledge about how work is really done (e.g. IDEFØ ). A prescriptive process model tells people what work to do and perhaps also how to do it (e.g. Signposting ). Process modelling has achieved considerable success in improving the management of design processes, such as in lead time reduction, task scheduling, and project decomposition . However, there are still a number of limitations need to be overcome  and , many of which are compounded by limitations in the way that actual design processes are recorded, such as lack of completeness of actual process descriptions, weakly structured and raw records, and poor capture of rationale. Notwithstanding the difficulties in representing process steps, there is considerable value in better representation of design processes. Firstly, individuals and organisations tend to follow similar approaches in their work and learn and adapt through successive execution of processes . Lessons from previous designs also benefit individuals and organisations by avoiding similar failures. Secondly, novice designers especially will benefit from a more complete record of such occurrences. Design processes, including design activities, decisions-made, and corresponding rationale, are currently largely still recorded in text documents (e.g. design reports, meeting minutes) and in some cases may be retained in employees’ memories. It is difficult for novice designers to assimilate and digest processes recorded in text documents, and the employees who carried out the work may not be available. Furthermore, an analysis of information requests from novice designers found that they were aware of their knowledge needs in only 35% of their queries . A useful process model will help designers, especially novice designers, pick up the correct information resources and methods at an early stage and minimise mistakes, false assumptions or incomplete information. Thirdly, better capture of processes will assist especially embodiment design for mature products, e.g. in automotive and aerospace engineering, in which a great deal of work is transactional, involving repetitive information access and manipulation steps. Fourthly, recording design activities in a better structured form will strengthen data traceability and information retrieval. It especially benefits product lifecycle support, for example tracing design rationale from service feedback and understanding the performance envelopes as design intents for a product (e.g. food processing equipment ) redesign. Using process modelling ideas, this paper introduces a new method to record transaction elements of the actual design processes undertaken in a design episode. The method, called component-based recording, is used in place of traditional design reports. The proposed method aims to (1) combine documentation and computer interpretable data to record the actual design work that has been done – recording information flow and dependencies, relationships between activities, successful and unsuccessful practices, and so on so that designers and engineers at later stages of the product lifecycle can look back to learn the lessons and continually improve design process; (2) allow routine work to be standardised and where appropriate reused, thereby freeing designers to focus their creativity and innovation on value-adding activities; (3) simplify definition of process model to make the recording of work quicker and easier; (4) allow both bottom-up and top-down recording of the process undertaken by an engineering team as it is carried out, and then browsing and retrieving of the record of the model from different viewpoints according to various users and purposes. The following parts of this paper are organised as follows. Section 2 gives the background of this research, including relevant literature from process modelling; and a brief investigation of design records and design work. Section 3 presents the method of documentation of design records using a component-based model, including the basic framework, the definition of an activity, XML schemas, and a Topic Map approach for organising activity records. Section 4 describes the implementation of the proposed approach with a case study. Finally, Section 5 gives the conclusions and further research discussions.
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