فرسودگی شغلی و حس انسجام در میان کارگزاران مسکونی دارایی واقعی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|6806||2011||12 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Safety Science, Volume 49, Issue 10, December 2011, Pages 1297–1308
Burnout is a multidimensional syndrome that occurs primarily in professions where practitioners are subjected to stress associated with direct interpersonal contact with clients. Previous research indicates that working as a real estate broker is a particularly stressful form of work. Considering the potentially harmful effect of burnout on real estate brokers, resulting in a range of negative impacts, it is important to identify those factors emanating from either the individual or their work environment that contribute to this syndrome. The paper presents a study that used a questionnaire survey to determine the individual demographics, work and intrapersonal characteristics that affect burnout in real estate brokers. A sample of 305 real estate brokers was obtained in Western Australia. Hierarchical regression was then employed to identify predictors of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation, and personal accomplishment) and sense of coherence (SOC). The analysis revealed the following: emotional exhaustion was associated with lower age, higher numbers of hours worked, and lower SOC; higher depersonalisation was associated with lower age and SOC; higher personal accomplishment was associated with a greater number of visits to clients per week, the presence of postgraduate qualification and a high SOC. The results provide insight to guide health promotion for real estate brokers so as to enhance their psychological and physical well-being, thus making a contribution to improving their overall performance levels and effectiveness.
Workplace stress has been identified as a major determinant influencing the psychological well-being and productivity and performance of individuals (e.g., Lazarus and Folkman, 1984, Latack, 1986 and Wang et al., 2007). Workplace stress however can vary according to the characteristics of an occupation (Cox et al., 1993). Constant interpersonal contact with clients has been identified as a workplace stressor that is unique to sales people such as real estate brokers (Abiala, 1999 and Rawlins, 2008). Having to work autonomously, choosing the number of hours to work, how and when to contact potential and existing clients, and an over reliance on commission for remuneration, provide an environment for burnout to occur (Edwards, 1997 and Rawlins, 2008). The pressures placed upon real estate brokers are further exacerbated by the cyclical nature of demand and supply within the housing market, which is predominately influenced by interest rates, government intervention (e.g., first home buyer’s and financial services regulation), stock market and the lending capacity/requirements of financial institutions (Rawlins, 2008). The recent sub-prime mortgage crisis, for example, triggered by a dramatic rise in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures in the United States (US) has adversely influenced the residential and commercial property sectors around the globe. The resultant decline in residential sales in 2008 and 2009 has meant that real estate brokers income potential has dropped, and they have had to work longer and harder to obtain sales, which can influence their psychological and physical well-being. Burnout can adversely influence the way in which real estate brokers deal with their clients (Wharton, 1996, Brotheridge and Grandey, 2002 and Rawlins, 2008). Having to cope with burnout is an area that has received limited attention among real estate brokers (Wharton, 1996, Sand and Miyaszki, 2000 and Rawlins, 2008). The propensity for burnout can be reduced if real estate brokers take advantage of coping strategies that are readily available to them (Sand and Miyaszki, 2000). Not all coping strategies, however, are suitable for all individuals as their dispositional orientation toward stressors will influence their ability to confront problems that may arise (Antonovsky, 1987, Antonovsky, 1993 and Love and Edwards, 2005). The concept of sense of coherence (SOC) as a ‘salutogenic’ approach for explaining good health and positive adjustment has been advocated by Antonovsky, 1987 and Antonovsky, 1993 and can be used to explain why some people cope adaptively with related stressors. The strength of an individual’s SOC is a major determinant of their state of health. In stressful situations a strong SOC helps to mobilise the necessary generalised resistance resources that are needed. This promotes adaptive and effective coping, and therefore enables an individual to deal with stress in a ‘salutogenic’ manner. Considering the potentially devastating impact of burnout on real estate brokers and associated industry stakeholders, it is important to identify those factors emanating from either the individual or their work environment that contribute to this syndrome. The aim of the research presented is to identify the individual demographics, work and intrapersonal characteristics (such as SOC) that affect burnout in real estate brokers. The results provide insight to guide health promotion for real estate brokers so as to enhance their psychological and physical well-being, thus making a contribution to improving their overall performance and to the benefit of the sector
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Contrary to the anecdotal evidence that exists, this research indicates that working as a real estate broker within the WA residential marketplace is not likely to lead to high levels of burnout. Furthermore, this is a surprising finding considering the previous research that has examined issues of burnout among real estate brokers in other countries such as the US. Is there something uniquely different about the WA residential marketplace or are the underlying cultural and behavioural differences in the way in which residential housing is transacted contributing to the findings reported? It is however beyond the scope of this paper to address and discuss such issues. The impact of recession has been briefly mentioned and this could be a contributing factor in the low level of burnout in WA. While the sub-prime crisis and subsequent collapse of the financial markets has had significant impact on residential markets throughout Europe and the US, the effect on WA has been minimal in relative terms (i.e. the percentage fall in residential values and sales) and the market remains buoyant. The recent announcement of several multi-billion projects such as the A$50 billion Gorgon Joint Venture project involving the development of the Greater Gorgon gas fields, and the construction of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant on Barrow Island (WA) has stimulated confidence in the residential housing market and it is expected sales and prices will rise in the forthcoming year. As previously discussed, this positive economic environment is conducive to reduced levels of stress. Apart from the SOC, the significant predictors did not explain large amounts of variance in the burnout scales. Implications, however, from the individual and work related demographics can be derived. There are implications for prevention of the broker feeling emotionally drained and therefore developing an insensitive attitude toward a client. The age/experience of the broker is of primary importance. Those who are responsible for the education and training of real estate brokers should be aware of and take preventative steps to alert new comers to the profession to the realistic types of stressors that they may be confronted with so that effective coping mechanisms can be identified. The nurturing of inexperienced brokers is an arduous task, but programs of mentoring conducted by those who are experienced in conjunction with CPD become salient. Additionally, brokers need to be aware of the effect that long working hours may have on their state of emotional exhaustion, irrespective of age. It can be difficult to resist fulfilling client requirements to sell or purchase a house as a significant amount of income is determined by commissions from sales. It can be difficult to resist fulfilling client needs and demands in many ways, and certainly one of the most demanding of these is a broker’s presence at individual home showings and open days. This may involve long days when there are several clients and numerous potential buyers. Moreover, many open days for residential properties occur during weekends, which can have an adverse impact on the family life of the broker. It is important for brokers to appreciate both cause and effect, and seek an appropriate and sustainable life / work balance. It is important also for brokers to understand that long working hours in an occupation that involves constant interpersonal contact, does not necessarily lead to feelings of professional or personal accomplishment. There are also implications for how satisfied a broker feels about their work. If a broker runs a successful practice or has gained a postgraduate qualification, a greater level of satisfaction may be achieved. This highlights the importance of CPD for brokers, allowing specialised skills to be taught or additional knowledge to be obtained. Future research needs to ascertain whether it was the type of occupation chosen that produced the lower burnout levels or whether it was the structure and nature of the marketplace in WA Ideally, brokers from different States in Australia need to be compared as there are varying legislative requirements in place pertaining to the sale of residential properties and different levels of market activity. Given the predictive capability of burnout from SOC, further research should focus on testing this finding across a number of populations who are subjected to interaction with customers within a sales environment.