به دست آوردن خودکفایی نیکوتین در مدل های آمفتامین و فنسیکلیدین اسکیزوفرنی: نقش برای استرس؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|91062||2018||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Schizophrenia Research, Volume 194, April 2018, Pages 98-106
Nicotine use and dependence is very high in patients with schizophrenia. One possible reason is that altered dopamine or glutamate activity in schizophrenia enhances the reinforcing effectiveness of nicotine. We used animal models to test the hypothesis that a hyperdopaminergic state (induced by repeated intermittent injections of amphetamine) or altered glutamate function (subchronic injection of phencyclidine, PCP) facilitates spontaneous acquisition of nicotine self-administration in rats. In Experiment 1 animals in an amphetamine-induced sensitized state (AISS) did not differ from saline-injected controls in their acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration. This effect was replicated in experiment 2, but it was also found that AISS rats and saline-injected controls showed higher rates of nicotine self-administration compared to uninjected controls. This difference was maintained across several fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 3 PCP treated rats and their saline-injected controls did not differ in nicotine self-administration. However, both groups showed consistently increased responding for nicotine on FR and PR schedules compared to an uninjected control group. Injection-stress appeared to influence the outcomes of these experiments in two ways. Firstly, injection stress potentially masked the impact of the AISS and PCP treatment on nicotine self-administration. Secondly, injection stress itself may have been sufficient to induce plastic changes in dopamine and glutamate systems, and these changes enhanced the acquisition and maintenance of nicotine self-administration. Further investigation is needed into the role of stress in the development of nicotine use and dependence, in the aetiology of schizophrenia and in their co-morbidity.