تفاوت قابل اغماض آموزش شرکت تابعه چند ملیتی : روش های یادگیری مدیریتی و کارآفرینی آن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|11336||2014||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Business Review, Volume 23, Issue 1, February 2014, Pages 102–114
The theme concerning modes of learning in multinational subsidiaries is the focus of enquiry in the current study. This theme is closely linked to the issue of how subsidiaries become alert and seize opportunities. Such an investigation is also important for management practice because effective subsidiary learning can render sustainable competitive advantage in the host country. We performed an in-depth case examination on six multinational subsidiaries of a large Finnish firm. We identify two learning modes of multinational subsidiaries that we refer to as managerial and entrepreneurial learning. We find that managerial learning shares characteristics with the systems-structural learning perspective; is facilitated by embeddedness of the subsidiary in the MNE system; and, transferred in the MNE through many conventional and reverse knowledge flows. On the contrary, entrepreneurial learning shares characteristics with the interpretive learning perspective; is facilitated by embeddedness of the subsidiary in the host country; and, transferred in the MNE through relatively fewer reverse knowledge flows. The distinction between these two learning modes and their discrete characteristics enlighten past research that has largely failed to pinpoint the importance of the two modes for MNE subsidiary activities.
n this article, we investigate the learning modes of the multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiary at the host country level. Learning is an inherent function of organizations that are perceived to be cognitive enterprises (Deshpande & Webster, 1989) and “bodies of thought” (Weick, 1979). The possession of asymmetric market learning can provide a source of competitive advantage to the organization concerned (Dickson, 1992). This holds also for the internationalized firm as learning affects considerably its growth and performance (Lord & Ranft, 1999). The learning theme is additionally linked to the issue of entrepreneurial opportunity since “[entrepreneurial] knowledge is the alertness leading to the discovery of opportunities” (Minniti & Bygrave, 2001: p. 7). Cultivation of this knowledge may enhance performance of the internationalized firm (Oviatt & McDougall, 2005). However, while international entrepreneurship studies have experienced a dramatic increase (Jones, Coviello, & Tang, 2011), the role of learning in the relevant literature has received relatively minor attention (Oviatt & McDougall, 2005). Few studies in this field provide insights into how firms acquire knowledge regarding foreign customers, partners, institutions and the modus operandi of doing business abroad. These scant insights refer mainly to international new ventures, which are those small firms that internationalize their activities from inception. In contrast, our knowledge into how subsidiaries of large MNEs learn in their host markets is very limited. Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) suggest that the chief justification for the existence of MNEs is to capitalize on and take full advantage of learning in host markets. Nonetheless, it is also acknowledged that learning in MNEs can be inefficient ( Gupta and Govindarajan, 1991 and Von Hippel, 1994). How learning can fed into the organization in order to be converted into behavior of the internationalized firm is an issue of fundamental interest in international business (Forsgren, 2002).