استقرار ICT و قدرت مبتنی بر منابع در معاملات آتی شرکت های چندملیتی
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Futures, Volume 42, Issue 9, November 2010, Pages 952–959
Applying a resource-dependency perspective to intra-multinational enterprise (MNE) power  and , this paper examines the effect of the deployment of advanced ICT and particularly the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Although subsidiaries in the multinational do not have authority-based or ‘structural’ power with respect to key strategic decisions  and , they may have ‘resource-based’ power in the form of knowledge and capabilities that is of value to the multinational as a whole. Business network analysis highlights the ‘invisibility’ of the external networks (often in the host country) to the upper echelons in the multinational through which valuable subsidiary knowledge and capabilities develop. It points out that this ‘invisibility’ undermines the headquarters’ ability to control the subsidiary , , , ,  and . In this paper we argue that the deployment of ERP undermines the resource base of subsidiary power and thus helps to restore greater central authority in the MNE. The paper reports findings from studies in twelve MNEs which have implemented ERP and points out that from the perspective of subsidiary managers a key effect of ERP deployment is the reduction in their autonomy. This may have significant adverse implications for the futures of the MNE as a federative organizational form and the legitimacy of MNE operations abroad.
As an organization, the multinational enterprise (MNE) has an inherent tendency towards a federative structure  in which subunits develop an autonomous knowledge base and thus a degree of strategic independence from the centre. In particular, subsidiaries develop ‘embedded’ relationships in (mostly local) business networks which significantly enhance their ability for strategic actions . However this creates a tension between the MNE as a managerial hierarchy and the MNE as an organizational structure. Arguably, the federative structure of the MNE has been unfavorable to managers, especially those in the top echelon of multinational headquarters. Their response will thus be to limit the federative character of multinationality in various ways. Whilst management scholars have implicitly recognized that the MNE's federative nature is inimical to the MNE's controlling elites they have overestimated the effectiveness of the softer, value or ‘culture’ based methods in overcoming the hurdles that the federative structure creates for control  and . Furthermore due to broader socio-political changes, notably the shift in the governance regime towards shareholder value, the intolerance towards the federative tendencies in the MNE has probably been increasing. At the same time information and communication technology (ICT) advances may have boosted the control capability of the headquarters. Thus ICT enables greater effectiveness and transparency in the information flow from subsidiaries and reduces the ‘invisibility’ of subsidiary networks in the host economy which is often seen as the main driver of subsidiary autonomy in the federative structure. However, whilst the application of ICT may enable the MNE headquarter to establish control, this may not necessarily serve the long-term viability of the MNE. As Levinthal and March  observe, ‘organizational power is a short-term asset but potentially a long-term liability’ (, p.102). Thus, in our context, ICT application enhances the power of the centre to impose a standardized streamlined organizational structure, which constrains subsidiaries in their institutional agenda and forces them to adhere tightly to central directives. It further undermines the scope for social entrepreneurship or local networking. A number of scholars have recently noted this as being central to the future viability of MNE strategies, particularly in emerging economies, arguably the most dynamic components of the world economy .In this paper we investigate the impact of ICT application through the resource-dependency perspective which provides a useful framework for exploring the intra-MNE tussle for power as both the power of the HQ and the subsidiary have significant resource underpinnings. We investigate the possible impact of the application of ICT on MNE structure from a resource-dependency perspective and then comment on possible implications for future MNE viability with respect to emerging responsiveness challenges. We look at this particularly in the context of emerging economies.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
ur empirical explorations demonstrate that ICT, specifically the implementation of ERP software contributes to a significant shift in coordination and control issues in MNE-subsidiary relationships. The paper applies a resource-dependency perspective to intra-MNE power  and , and examines the effect of the deployment of advanced ICT and particularly the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP). The specific focus is on the relationship between HQ and their international subsidiaries. From an organizational viewpoint, subsidiaries in the multinational do not have authority-based or ‘structural’ power with respect to key strategic decisions  and , but they benefit from ‘resource-based power’ in that they can exploit strategic knowledge advantages over their HQ. Subsidiaries benefit from capabilities to the extent that their proximity to the host markets is of value to the multinational as a whole. Business network analysis highlights the ‘invisibility’ to the upper echelons in the multinational of the external networks (often in the host country) through which valuable subsidiary knowledge and capabilities develop and points out that this ‘invisibility’ undermines the headquarters’ ability to control the subsidiary , , , ,  and . In this paper we empirically explore the notion that the deployment of ERP undermines the resource base of subsidiary power and, in fact, restores greater central authority to the multinational enterprise HQs. Our findings provide support through studies of 12 multinational enterprises which have implemented ERP over the past years. The analysis of detailed semi-structured interviews indicates that from the perspective of subsidiary managers a key effect of ERP deployment is the greater visibility to HQ in terms of operational decision making and the more centralized control and management which leads to a reduction in subsidiary autonomy. HQ are increasingly perceived to show their prowess in terms of giving more directives, reduced flexibility in negotiations and using the reduced informational asymmetry between HQ and subsidiaries to favor their own interests. Overall our empirical explorations demonstrate that the changes in the landscape of ICT, with particular reference to ERP systems, can be seen as a parallel development to the changes in the MNE structure. In the ICT context there has been a movement from the age of ‘big computing’ to ‘personal computing’ to ‘networked computing’ . The introduction of ERP/SAP is in one sense a movement back to ‘big computing’, i.e. a much more centralized approach towards ICT configurations and architecture. While the MNE has traditionally evolved from a unitary organization with replica subsidiaries, it developed into federative structures and is now increasingly moving back again towards centralized structures (‘flagship’ MNEs, see Ref. ).