روابط بین CRM، RQ و CLV بر اساس اولویت هتل های مختلف
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|1514||2011||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Hospitality Management, Volume 30, Issue 2, June 2011, Pages 262–271
This study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to investigate the strength of the relationships among Customer Relationship Management (CRM), Relationship Quality (RQ), and Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) from a consumer viewpoint. This study also investigates whether or not these relationship models show significant differences based on different hotel type preference groups. An analysis of 688 effective questionnaires produces two main findings. (1) CRM has a positive influence on RQ, and RQ has a positive influence on CLV. (2) Consumer groups with different hotel preferences reveal a partial interference effect on the relationships among CRM, RQ, and CLV. In other words, different hotel preferences create significant differences in the strength of partial relationship paths.
An enterprise which set up a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system to find and keep its best customers and develop long-term relationships with loyal customers will acquire greater profits (Christy et al., 1996). Therefore, CRM has gradually been applied to the hotel industries to enhance the relationship between enterprise and its customers (Liu et al., 2007). Because the enterpriser believes that the relationship between a hotel and its customers is direct and intimate, the positive effects of CRM will significantly enhance the Relationship Quality (RQ) between hotel industries and their customers, increasing the hotel's Customer Lifetime Value (CLV) (Garbarino and Johnson, 1999, Kim and Cha, 2002 and Leu and Hsieh, 2000). However, based on the customer's viewpoint, few studies have explored if these relationships exist; this is the major issue of this study. The competition in hotel industries is quite severe, thus hotels must improve their quality and services to win new customers. In addition to attracting more customers, hotels must also maintain the loyalty of existing customers because the cost of gaining new customers is approximately five times greater than the cost of keeping old customers (Rosenberg and Czepiel, 1984). As a result, CRM has become a hot topic in the hotel industry. In the customer-oriented era, customers hold the key to a hotel's fate, and good customer relationships have become an important intangible asset for hospitality companies. A hotel must realize the real needs of its customers before it can effectively seize new business opportunities. Moreover, the relationship between a hotel and its customers is inseparable, making CRM a very important factor in maintaining RQ and enhancing CLV. Although most hotel enterprises make great efforts to improve their CRM practices to satisfy the needs of their customers, few enterprises know how much customers feel the effects of CRM actions. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of CRM on RQ factors such as customer satisfaction, trust and commitment in the hotel industry. This study also examines whether or not RQ enhances CLV factors such as customer usage quantity, loyalty, word of mouth, and purchase intentions. Most previous studies on CRM or CLV are based on the enterprise's point of view (e.g. Jae et al., 2004, Khirallah, 1999 and Swift, 2001). However, this study takes the customer's viewpoint to investigate the implementation of CRM practices by a hotel, whether or not the RQ with customers will be improved, and whether or not the CLV can be further enhanced. In addition, this study investigates differences in the relationships among CRM, RQ, and CLV based on different hotel type preferences. Based on the research background and motivations that explore if relationships exist between CRM, RQ, and CLV based on the customer's viewpoint, the following describes the research objectives of this study: 1. To investigate the influence of CRM on RQ. 2. To investigate the influence of RQ on CLV. 3. To investigate differences in the relationships between CRM, RQ, and CLV based on different hotel type preferences. This study uses literature review to develop the research framework and questionnaire; then empirical study is used to produce its results. The hotel industry can use these results as a reference for employing CRM strategies.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
5.1. Conclusions and discussion This study investigates the consumer views on CRM, RQ and CLV for three kinds of hotels: tourism hotels, general hotels, and guesthouses, and the differences in these relationships based on hotel type. This study develops an effective measurement scale and relationship model, and provides the following conclusions. 5.1.1. The effect of CRM The results of this study show that when customers show higher awareness on the CRM actions of the hotel, the recognized RQ will be better; meanwhile, the better the RQ, the higher the four dimensions of CLV, individually. This result suggests that all kinds of hotels should emphasize CRM actions based on cost/benefit concept since the effects of CLV on usage quantity, loyalty, word of mouth, and consumer's purchase intentions all can be enhanced by maintaining RQ between enterprise and customer. Meanwhile, the effect of RQ can be enhanced by implementing CRM. 5.1.2. Comparison of consumer groups with different hotel preferences Study results and a comparison between consumer groups show that no significant difference exists in the relationship strength for the influence of CRM on RQ for the three hotel preference groups. All three groups exhibit positive strong relationships. However, the general hotel group has more recognition of the effect of RQ on the three dimensions of CLV (usage quantity, loyalty and word of mouth) than the tourism hotel group does. In addition, focusing on the influence of RQ on the all four dimensions of CLV, consumers who prefer guesthouses show a higher recognition of the influence of RQ on CLV than do consumers who prefer tourism hotels. This implies that hotel type is an important interference factor. Consumers with different hotel preferences do indeed have different views of RQ and its effects on CLV. This result can be used as a reference by different hotels in preparing their CRM strategies. 5.2. Managerial implications This study shows that when a hotel implements CRM activities, it will indeed positively affect RQ and further enhance customer usage quantity, loyalty, word of mouth, and purchase intention. Moreover, comparative analysis shows that consumers with different hotel preferences exhibit significant differences in some relationship paths. Consumers with a preference for general hotels exhibit a stronger RQ influence on loyalty and RQ influence on word of mouth. Thus, customer loyalty and word of mouth will be competitive advantages for general-type hotels. Therefore, general hotels should focus on providing convenient lodging services and a wonderful experience to customers for increased loyalty, such as offering a clean environment, convenient service process, and professional employees to satisfy customers’ expectations. On the other hand, consumers with a preference for guesthouses show a stronger CRM influence on RQ, RQ influence on usage quantity, and RQ influence on purchase intentions. Therefore, guesthouses should maintain their CRM and RQ efforts to enhance consumer usage quantity and purchase intentions, such as maintaining an association with local resources and culture to provide a unique service, as well as providing detailed maps, transportation guides, convenient room reservation service, and an interactive communication channel. Consumers with a preference for tourist hotels exhibit a weaker relationship between RQ and CLV. Thus, besides improving CRM activities to enhance its RQ with consumers and reinforce the effects of CLV, tourist hotels should provide more professional service and new facilities to attract new consumers and spur repeat business by loyal customers. Since the professional service, innovative software and hardware facilities are the core competitive advantage of tourism hotels, tourism hotels should provide customized service, provide information searching system and website to reply to customers’ opinions and queries, provide an innovative and useful facility, and perform surveys to understand customers’ needs (Taiwan Leisure Farming Development Association, 2004). Because previous studies perform fewer comparisons of consumer groups of different hotel preferences on the CRM relationship model, the analysis result of this study, can not only construct the related influential factors and concept framework, but also provide references to different hotel enterprises to prepare CRM strategy and enhance efficiency. Thus, this study possesses both academic value and practical contributions. 5.3. Limitations and future research Since different types of hotels will conduct different CRM activities, this study might not be able to introduce all the CRM actions of all types of hotels. Subsequent studies can set up more suitable variables by surveying more multi-element literature or conducting enterprise surveys to further analyze the differences of CRM effectiveness between different CRM actions. Since previous studies showed that RQ (which aggregate customers’ satisfaction, trust, and commitment) had a positive relationship with repeat purchase, usage quantity, loyalty, and word of mouth (Kim et al., 2001 and Kim and Cha, 2002), we therefore aggregate the three dimensions of RQ to explore the influence of RQ on the four dimensions of CLV. Furthermore, future research should measure the individual dimensions of RQ and explore the relationship between CRM and the three dimensions of RQ, and the relationships among the three dimensions of RQ and the four dimensions of CLV individually. This study takes the customer's viewpoint to investigate customer perceptions of CRM, RQ and CLV. The results provide some important information about CRM, RQ and CLV from customers for enterprises. However, management and customers may not have the same definitions of the three constructs. Therefore, the perception differences between management and customers should be the subject of further research. This study surveyed domestic travelers only. Therefore, the findings can lead to further research in other countries for generalizing to the general public. Moreover, different target groups or industry types may generate different research results. Future research should investigate other industries, for example, restaurants or the travel industry. Hopefully, such studies will confirm the practicality of the conceptual framework in this study.