مدل عامل ترجیحی برای موفقیت سیستم مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|861||2005||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Expert Systems with Applications, Volume 28, Issue 4, May 2005, Pages 641–654
As the market competition becomes keen, constructing a customer relationship management system is coming to the front for winning over new customers, developing service and products for customer satisfaction and retaining existing customers. However, decisions for CRM implementation have been hampered by inconsistency between information technology and marketing strategies, and the lack of conceptual bases necessary to develop the success measures. Using a structural equation analysis, this study explores the CRM system success model that consists of CRM initiatives: process fit, customer information quality, and system support; intrinsic success: efficiency and customer satisfaction; and extrinsic success: profitability. These constructs underlie much of the existing literature on information system success and customer satisfaction perspectives. We found the empirical support for CRM implementation decision-making from 253 respondents of 14 companies which have implemented the CRM system. These findings should be of great interest to both researchers and practitioners.
With an ever-increasing competition for marketing dominance, many firms have utilized the customer relationship management (CRM) system for improved business intelligence, better decision making, enhanced customer relations, and good quality of services and product offerings. The underpinning of the customer-oriented managing concept is that identification and satisfaction of customer needs lead to improved customer retention, which is based on corporate profitability (Day, 1994 and Sivadas and Baker-Prewitt, 2000). They recognize the CRM system could carry into the foreseeable future of hyper-competition, and try to implement off-the-shelf CRM solutions for CRM planning as is done for enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, e-commerce systems, and advanced database systems (Holland and Light, 1999 and Shao and Lin, 2002). When a CRM project is started, many organizations may expect a substantial payback, increased revenue, reduced cost, loyal customers, real-time customer information, and satisfied CRM system users. The expenditures on CRM system equipment, a commitment of dedicated resources and services, have skyrocketed initially and thereafter. However, after implementing a CRM system, many organizations are left wondering enough return on investment. More in depth, many are asking the question, “Does CRM system lead to higher customer satisfaction and superior economic returns? If so, which factors critically improve customer relationship and profitability?” Although the widespread acceptance of this relationship is evident in the growing popular literature on market-oriented and Information System (IS) success models, it is not yet clearly understood why and how CRM becomes successful while others fail. In the realm of IS, the IS success model has been treated as a major issue of MIS research. The Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM), an adaptation of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and DeLone and McLean's (1992) IS success model provide the basic idea of user acceptance of IS and IS success measures. In addition to these models, numerous researches have tried to find the underlying factor that may contribute to the relative success of dynamically changing IS (Cavaye and Cragg, 1995, Johnston and Carrico, 1988 and Reich and Benbasat, 1990). The measurements of several dimensions of success factors have been used to assess IS success, such as process fit, customer information quality, and system support (Wixom, 2001). For many firms, the strong quality management of process, customer information, and system has become an essential ingredient for successful competition (Fok, Fok, & Hartman, 2001). In the marketing and service management, the impacts of customer satisfaction and its profitability have been a major focus. The literature propose that there is a strong theoretical underpinning for an empirical exploration of the linkages between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, which in turn affects profitability (Anderson et al., 1994, Day, 1994, Garbarino and Jonhnson, 1999, Hallowell, 1996 and Sivadas and Baker-Prewitt, 2000). This CRM issue should therefore be examined in light of both marketing and IS literatures. Customers have also increasingly become the end-user of information technology applications with the emergence of electronic commerce (Khalifa & Liu, 2002). The specific research goals are to further develop the CRM success model based on empirically evident instruments that (1) measure factors that influence intrinsic CRM success and extrinsic CRM success, (2) identify the scales of these factors, (3) test the relative importance of various factors, and (4) are appropriate for use by academics and practitioners. In particular, we aim to examine the full range of variables that have been identified in prior studies and test the completeness of the model. This study intends to test many of the posited interrelationships by the sample of CRM system users. We discuss the causal relationships among CRM initiatives and intrinsic/extrinsic success instruments which contain the user-based measures and customer-based measures of CRM system for profitability. The paper first outlines existing research findings concerning the factors which contribute to the successful implementation of CRM and extends the previous work by bringing together empirically. In addition, the paper explores which success factors have the priority for CRM implementation and suggests managerial and technological implications.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this paper, we set out to investigate factors affecting the success of CRM implementation from three perspectives: efficiency literature in IS, customer satisfaction literature in marketing, and firms' aggregated profitability. These were synthesized to identify CRM initiatives, intrinsic success, and extrinsic constructs for analyzing the CRM success model. Based on IS literature, we argued that measuring internal efficiency for process fit, customer information quality and system support provides the first insight for achieving CRM success. By synthesizing IS and marketing theories related to customer satisfaction and profitability, key constructs are identified for CRM implementation priority. The CRM success model provides strong support for the reliability and validity of the proposed metrics for measuring the key constructs of CRM success. The findings of this study discovered multidimensional measures of factors that influence profitability through CRM that are intuitively appealing and reliable. The analysis of the measurement model indicates that the proposed metrics have a relatively high degree of validity and reliability. These measures can be used to evaluate what influences CRM success and to provide insight for making decisions about the priority of CRM investment. The results of the study provide reliable instruments for operationalizing the key constructs in the analysis of CRM success and have some important implications for implementing CRM systems. One of the most significant findings is the relative strength of causal paths on the CRM initiatives–efficiency–customer satisfaction–profitability compared to the CRM initiatives–profitability relationship. In the difference between the models, intrinsic success factors such as efficiency and customer satisfaction were strong mediating factors linking the CRM initiatives to profitability. This difference was even more pronounced in examining the indirect and mediation effect test of efficiency on profitability. We have obtained statistical evidence suggesting that CRM initiatives, in general, exert a significantly positive influence on internal efficiency. Due to the close relationship among CRM initiatives, efficiency, customer satisfaction, and profitability, this study offers a CRM success model and meaningful implications for CRM planning and implementation. Thus, a major conclusion of this study is that the three CRM initiatives such as process fit, customer information quality, and system support, while not impacting profitability directly, could impact profitability via impacting efficiency and should not be ignored by those attempting to plan successful CRM systems.