فرایند مدیریت ارتباط با مشتری (CRM) در بخش های خرده فروشی و خدمات شرکت-های ژاپنی: توسعه وفاداری و بازده مالی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|940||2008||11 صفحه PDF||22 صفحه WORD|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 15, Issue 5, September 2008, Pages 375–385
2. چارچوب مفهومی
1.2. رویکرد نظری به CRM
2.2. زمینه بازاریابی رابطه مند
3.2. طرحهای وفاداری و ساختار روابط
4.2. حفظ و مدیریت مشتری
5.2. رویکرد پژوهشی پیشین و چارچوب مفهومی
تصویر1. مدل مفهومی از خروجی CRM
3. فرضیهها و روش ها
تصویر 2. ساختار اجرای CRM و عملکرد
جدول 1.خلاصه ای از ارزیابی ها و ساختارها
تصویر 3. مدل مفهومی ارتباطات CRM بر ROE
تصویر 4. نتایج تأثیر CRM بر مدل ROE
5. خلاصه و بحث
Research on customer relationship management (CRM) in general has focused on the effects of customer satisfaction with CRM, customer retention and profit management, and the effects of CRM technique on performance. Conceptually, however, a sequence of effects of CRM is expected, from CRM implementation to financial performance, but this sequence has not been explored. Whilst several definitions of CRM have been proposed, this article defines CRM as relationship-development programmes based on IT. CRM is regarded as the integration of relationship technology (i.e. data consolidating and data mining) with loyalty schemes. Survey research was conducted in Japan in the retail and service industries to test three hypotheses: (1) a firm's relationship orientation has a positive effect on CRM implementation (data warehousing, data mining, using customer data for decision making); (2) CRM implementation has a positive effect on return on equity; and (3) CRM implementation has an indirect effect on return on equity, mediated by customisation. Using a structural equation model the first hypothesis was supported, but the third hypothesis was only partially supported. In these analyses a direct effect of CRM implementation on return on equity (ROE) was supported; however, a negative impact of customisation on ROE was found.
Customer management itself is not a new concept. The development in the mid-1990s of customer management techniques using IT (termed CRM), with the IT being used to track multiple activities of customers, distinguishes CRM from earlier approaches to customer management. Consulting firms assert that the CRM concept enables customer loyalty-building and profitable segmentation. CRM has been often discussed in academia, in the context of relationship marketing. However, researchers have recently started to pay more attention to CRM per se, instead of regarding it as just an applied area of relationship marketing. CRM practice is characterised by its technological elements. Since CRM involves repetitive practices for transferring customer data into the actual customer relationships (Swift, 2001), it requires practical technologies for transferring information. IT vendors focused on the technologies such as computer telephony integration (CTI), data warehousing, application software, and system integration, etc., which are used to implement the CRM concept. The managerial value of CRM is in customer loyalty and relationship building, although it has foundations in technological dimensions. Therefore, CRM is defined as customer relationship building programmes based on IT. Such programmes may be directed at loyalty building, but other uses are also in evidence. Conceptually, CRM is supposed to enhance value to customers through raising satisfaction levels on transactions. If customers appreciate the value provided by a CRM programme, they are expected to continuously enhance the relationship with the firm involved through loyalty to the products/brands, purchasing more, advocating the firm to others, etc.. Such a customer, who has repetitive or loyal behaviour, brings about additional financial value to the firms. Although the implementation of CRM involves large investments in IT and management, it is expected to yield a profitable outcome, as a result. Therefore, a sequential effect of CRM should be expected from customer satisfaction to financial benefit for the firm. However, most research on CRM has tended to test partial causalities, for example, impact of CRM on customer satisfaction or customer retention on financial performance, other than the direct effect of CRM on financial performance, even though the sequential effect of CRM is recognised. This paper tests the sequential effect of CRM strategy on company profitability. It is based on survey research undertaken in Japan in 2005. First, we explore the theoretical approach to CRM by reviewing CRM in the context of relationship marketing and loyalty marketing. Second, we summarise the previous empirical research and present the conceptual framework. Finally, we test our hypotheses based on the conceptual framework and present some implications.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Structural equation models were used to test the following hypotheses. (1) The relationship orientation of a firm has a positive effect on CRM implementation. (2) CRM implementation has a direct effect on financial outcome. (3) CRM implementation has an indirect effect on financial outcome, mediated by customisation through customisation. Although the first and second hypotheses were supported, the third hypothesis was only partially supported. It was found that there was the positive effect of CRM implementation and negative impact of customisation on ROE. The result that customisation has a negative effect on ROE raises some points of discussion. Firms started to introduce loyalty schemes from the late 1990s. Major retailers, particularly, started to implement loyalty cards from 2001. It is possible that firms are not yet receiving the returns on the investments. They are still at an early stage of CRM and loyalty scheme implementation in Japan. There is likely to be a lag effect on return on the necessary investment in IT and this may be the reason for the lack of support for the second hypothesis. CRM consists of two important parts, namely business intelligence and loyalty marketing for the service and retail industries. Many firms have not yet learned fully how to communicate and make offers to specified customer groups. Whilst such offers may be present they are not yet effective as a marketing tool. Firms are learning the techniques and benefits of processing and interpreting customer information. Swift (2001) asserted that the offering of personalised product/services is not expected to be successful, unless firms are capable of implementing effectively the whole of CRM. Organisational learning is related to the age and experiences of organisations (Sinkula, 1994). Firms in this research seem to be still at a learning stage. Huber (1991) presented four constructs related to organisational learning: knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and organisational memory. The knowledge acquisition construct is portrayed as consisting of five sub-constructs: (1) drawing on knowledge available at the organisation's birth, (2) learning from experience, (3) learning by observing other organisations, (4) grafting on to itself components that possess knowledge needed but not possessed by the organisation, and (5) noticing or searching for information about the organisation's environment and performance (p 88). Japanese firms quite possibly have neither developed their own experiences nor have yet had opportunities of learning from others. This is particularly the case with retailers. Currently, almost the only variable seen to be able to be changed in making an offer to an individual is price. How to customise offerings to customers effectively still requires to be considered by many firms which are implementing CRM. The data have been collected by the firms but the implementation of changes in operational marketing have not been made. Data mining as a technique is widespread; however, it does not promise immediate success in business. The findings from data mining require to be interpreted in a broader context, for example, by managers in product development, merchandising, store design and so on, rather than being only used by information processing personnel. Therefore, transferring customer information into real customer knowledge may require more knowledge and experience and so a lag effect will be apparent in any financial benefits. Another possible issue, that underpins the results, is misperception of potential benefits in implementation. Firms may be expecting two layers of outcome in introducing a customer loyalty scheme. One is the direct promotional effect on sales. The other is realising benefits in product/service development, merchandising and assortment generation. Although firms gain knowledge on what to merchandise based on the customer data, they might not be able to get products to the shop floor in an appropriate way because of lack of supply chain capability. The results of this survey have shown that respondent companies’ total investment in IT has an effect on ROE; however, to get this effect the whole business system consisting of operational CRM and supply chain-based IT is required. Therefore for CRM to yield its full benefits the organisation may need to be re-structured to become customer centric, rather than seeking a quick solution in analysing customer data. An implication of the research reported in this paper is that there is need to explore more fully the nature of the internal processes that constitute customer relationship management. The sequence from investment in the necessary technologies for data collection and analysis, to the managerial procedures in customer communication, and the creation of customer loyalty, to the final resulting improvements in the financial position of the firm requires to be studied as a set of interacting aspects of the total concept of CRM. Because CRM is in effect a process so there will be a time lag between the investment and the financial benefits. This research has explored aspects of the internal relationships in the overall process for retailers and service firms in Japan. There is now opportunity to disaggregate the CRM process more fully to explore the structural and temporal dynamics within the process.