تجزیه و تحلیل روش ترکیبی از حوادث انضباطی در فوتبال مردانه
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Sport Management Review, Volume 21, Issue 1, February 2018, Pages 72-85
The purposes of this study were to (a) document the frequency and types of disciplinary incidents directed toward menâs soccer referees and (b) examine stakeholdersâ perceptions of factors that contributed to such incidents. A two phase sequential mixed methods approach was used. In phase one, a provincial soccer organizationâs disciplinary files from 2010 to 2015 were subjected to a document analysis. Descriptive statistics for frequency and type of incident over time were calculated. In phase two, individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 players, 9 referees, and 3 disciplinary committee members. Results from the document analysis showed that 98 incidents were reported over the five-year period, with the most incidents occurring in 2015. Incidents occurred more frequently in indoor versus outdoor soccer, and the highest number of incidents was reported at the lowest competitive tiers of play. Qualitative data showed that factors at different levels of social ecology contributed to the occurrence of incidents. Microsystem level factors, which appeared to directly contribute to the occurrence of incidents, were playersâ and coachesâ lack of knowledge, coachesâ attitudes, physical environment (indoor versus outdoor soccer), inconsistent refereeing, refereesâ communication, number of officials, and importance of game (score, stage of season). At a broader exosystem level, the training and mentoring of referees, rule changes, and the disciplinary procedure were associated with incidents. At the macrosystem level, cultural background and discrimination were distally associated with incidents. These findings provide information that may be used by sport organizations to inform educational efforts to reduce disciplinary incidents.