جان سالم به در بردن از سرطان سینه، کار و درآمد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16274||2002||23 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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|شرح||تعرفه ترجمه||زمان تحویل||جمع هزینه|
|ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت عادی||هر کلمه 90 تومان||12 روز بعد از پرداخت||720,630 تومان|
|ترجمه تخصصی - سرعت فوری||هر کلمه 180 تومان||6 روز بعد از پرداخت||1,441,260 تومان|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Health Economics, Volume 21, Issue 5, September 2002, Pages 757–779
Relying on data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) linked to longitudinal social security earnings data, we examine differences between breast cancer survivors and a non-cancer control group in employment, hours worked, wages, and earnings. Overall, breast cancer has a negative impact on employment. However, among survivors who work, hours of work, wages, and earnings are higher compared to women in the control group. We explore possible biases underlying these estimates, focusing on selection, but cannot rule out a causal interpretation. Our research points to heterogeneous labor market responses to breast cancer, and shows that breast cancer does not appear to be debilitating for women who remain in the work force.
In recent years, improved detection methods for breast cancer have led to the treatment and survival of a younger population of women more likely to be at working ages, making an inquiry into the impact of breast cancer on labor market outcomes particularly relevant. Between 1983 and 1993, in situ breast cancer rates increased from 2.3 to 6.2 per 100,000 among women under age 50, largely reflecting an increase in the use of mammography (American Cancer Society, 1999). Treatment has improved as well, leading to the largest short-term decline in over 40 years in breast cancer mortality (American Cancer Society, 2001). Breast cancer research has focused on detection and treatment and, to a lesser extent, survivors’ quality-of-life. However, now that 5-year survival is expected for most women diagnosed in the early stages of breast cancer, attention should also be given to economic measures of the consequences of surviving breast cancer, as part of a broader effort to understand the quality-of-life implications of the disease, and how labor market agents react to cancer survivorship.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
presents descriptive statistics for the dependent and independent variables from the HRS. The prevalence estimate of breast cancer is 2.6% (n=156). Approximately 64% of all women are currently working. They work an average of 38.5 hours per week, have average annual earnings of US$ 18,424, and an average hourly wage of US$ 10.63. Wealth is a highly skewed variable with a mean of US$ 229,531 and median of US$ 98,500. Fifty-five percent of married women’s husbands have health insurance coverage through their employer. Overall, this sample can be described as predominantly Caucasian/other, married, and middle-aged (mean age is 54), and as having a high school education or better and very few children under age 18.