یک مدل مفهومی برای ارزیابی تاثیر تأمین تجهیزات الکترونیکی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16846||2002||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : European Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2002, Pages 25–33
This paper aims to contribute to the development of a conceptual model for studying the direct and indirect impact of various forms of electronic procurement (EP) on a firm's integral purchasing (-related) costs. The model builds on existing classifications of purchasing-related costs and benefits and is illustrated by means of empirical data. Building the model leads us to conclude that assessment of the direct impact but especially the indirect impact of EP is far from straightforward. A form of EP may not only affect different categories of purchasing-related costs but also induce opposing direct effects within one such category. In addition, indirect effects can occur in many ways, as drastic reduction costs in one category may offer possibilities for structural changes in existing purchasing routines, which may in turn affect costs and benefits in other categories as well.
Fundamentally, Internet technology provides ways of drastically reducing different categories of transaction and communication costs. In that respect, the potential merit of various electronic procurement (EP) forms, such as electronic catalogue systems, electronic auctions, intelligent agent applications, electronic market places seems largely undisputed (Smeltzer and Ruzicka, 2000; Croom, 2000). However, given the wide range of solutions available, many organisations struggle with assessing the suitability of the different solutions for their specific commodities, suppliers relationships and portfolio of purchasing requirements (Gebauer et al., 1998; Roberts and Mackay, 1998). Although a fast-growing body of literature emerges on various specific EP forms, like electronic ordering systems (Harink, 1999), electronic reverse auctions (Teich et al., 1999), intelligent agents (Liang and Huang, 2000) and so on, a clear theoretical basis for specifying conditions under which different EP forms appear appropriate in different purchasing and organisational settings seems to be lacking (see e.g. Min and Galle, 1999; Emiliani, 2000). The research described in this paper aims to contribute to the development of such a basis. More specifically, we present the first outline of a conceptual model, which identifies the impact of various EP forms on categories of purchasing-related costs and benefits. The paper is organised as follows. First, we define six EP forms that exist in practice. Second, we specify possible ways in which introducing a new form of information and communication technology (ICT) in general may impact on organisations. Third, we present the results of a literature study regarding existing conceptual models of purchasing-related costs and benefits. Next, we qualitatively assess the impact of the six different EP forms on different categories of purchasing-related costs and benefits. The assessment takes place in two stages. The first stage assumes that the implementation of a certain EP form does not fundamentally change the existing purchasing processes in the sense of organisational routines, as defined by Feldman (2000), or standard operating procedures, as defined by Cyert and March (1963). The second stage also considers the possibility of radically changing purchasing processes—given the drastic shift in search and communication costs—and the impact of these changes on purchasing-related costs and benefits. The resulting conceptual model is illustrated by empirical evidence gathered in the course of several research and consulting projects in which the authors were involved. Finally, we draw conclusions and formulate directions for further research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Developing a simple qualitative model of the possible impact of various forms of EP underlines the danger of treating EP as one ‘solution’. Trying to assess the direct impact of the various forms is hardly straightforward, let alone the possible indirect impact. Opposing effects may occur within one and the same category of purchasing costs, when introducing an EP-form. In addition, the dramatic reduction in search and communication costs makes it worthwhile to consider drastically different frequencies and/or choice-sets in the purchasing process, e.g. supplier selection. Doing so may have a range of indirect effects, not only on the purchasing costs but also on costs of internal processes outside purchasing. Still, the basic structure of our model seems to offer a useful starting point for better understanding the complexity and challenges of EP. Future research could be directed at further refinement of the conceptual model and possibly formalising the model. Concepts and theories from accounting, for example Activity Based Costing (see for example, Degraeve et al., 2000) and modelling approaches used in Transaction Cost Economics may prove useful in improving the model's rigor. In addition, the literature on buyer–supplier relationships and supply networks (e.g. Gadde and Haakansson, 2001) could help to model the different indirect consequences of changing purchasing routines when implementing a form of EP, e.g. the possible categories of effects of drastically increasing the frequency of reconsidering the current supplier base. Building on deeper theoretical understanding, additional empirical testing of the model could take place in a number of—if possible longitudinal—case-studies as such a methodology provides the necessary level of detail and time-span to observe the direct and indirect impact of EP.