ادغام اینترنت در تاکتیکهای بازاریابی کسب و کار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|19619||2014||11 صفحه PDF||23 صفحه WORD|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Industrial Marketing Management, Volume 32, Issue 1, 1 January 2003, Pages 3–13
Companies have got to learn to eat change for breakfast. Tom Peters …it behooves us to adapt oneself to the times if one wants to enjoy continued good fortune. Niccolo Machiavelli Business Marketing Management (BMM) over the Internet has been receiving a “lot of ink” in current periodicals and to a lesser degree in academic literature. Practice changes so rapidly that principles emerging from last month's successes may need revision before they are derived and printed. There is yet a general theory of business-to-business Internet integration. Nonetheless, there is a need to build such knowledge on “the fly,” and to attempt to see patterns even if they have a short life span. The present work takes a look at the state of business-to-business Internet marketing practices as the year 2000 came to a close for larger companies. Not surprisingly, and just like the hardware that make Internet distribution density so high, we find that the Internet is having an impact on: market size and structure, business buying and selling behavior, negotiation strategies and associated pricing practices. Moreover, distribution systems are experiencing a major realignment while logistics optimizing is even greater. The Web and e-mail are becoming more fully integrated into the business communication mix. The attempt here is to learn about the most rapidly emerging and changing communication technology of the past 100 years. Business-driven technology now appears to be driving business marketing tactics and results are augmented through multifaceted complex use of the Internet.
…The Internet's core advantage lies in its great capacity of fast, efficient, integrated, and interactive exchange of information… Thus, the Internet facilitates the information exchanges between organizations, concerning issues such as discovery of new customer needs, trends of the local and global markets, competitive moves, joint development of products, joint selling activities, etc.  E-commerce was, and still is by many measures, hailed as a revolutionary force in business, being able to both improve the way business is conducted today, and perhaps more importantly to reshape complete industries. The increased transparency that is made possible by the Internet should make inefficient markets more efficient and thus send ripple effects throughout the economy . Major companies are expected to use the Internet to alter existing industry structures and business processes, to improve company information, redefine their information with clients, leverage global resources, and pioneer new business models . Similarly, they are to use it to streamline their supply chain, and eliminate inefficiencies with increased automation. Businesses are expected to place orders totaling 3.2 trillion dollars worldwide via the Internet by 2003, according to Forrester Research . A recent empirical study performed on American and European companies, suggests that the Internet enhances business performance in business-to-business organizations, both in terms of total sales and net profit margin, though the evidence shows that it may do so indirectly . Whereas just a few years ago companies may have asked themselves whether or not to move their business to the Internet, today companies no longer ask themselves that question. The answer is simple: there can be no room for the company to exist without somehow being on the Internet. Goldman Sachs estimates that using the Internet will reduce purchasing costs in several industries by more than 20%, thus reducing the total cost of doing business by as much as 12.5% . …The Internet can be used to conduct marketing research, reach new markets, serve customers better, distribute products faster, solve customer problems, and communicate more efficiently with business partners. The Internet is also a useful tool for gathering intelligence on customers, competitors, and potential markets, as well as communicating information about companies and/or products.  While there are many positive aspects to harnessing the power of the Internet to conduct business, some of the negative aspects have begun to recently surface as well. The present focus is on one of the most prevalent themes in today's Business Marketing Management (BMM) scene, that of the different variances of the exchanges/electronic-marketplaces. A basic premise of this paper is to show how these emerging technologies impact traditional elements of business marketing tactics. The goal is to explain how BMM is evolving through their use of the Internet, high-speed communications, and computers for big business marketers. We will also try to determine how major businesses marketers benefit more from these exchanges and why. This is achieved through the use of both academic and business periodical literature. The subject is based on a relatively new phenomenon and therefore there has been a limited amount of time for academic emphasis on the specifics of Internet BMM, and their impact on marketing mix management. In order to be current, especially in this rapidly changing field, one must follow the recent literature and uncover emerging patterns and trends.1
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
BCG predicts that by 2003 over 65% of all BMM e-commerce purchases will be made in six primary sectors: retail, shipping, high-tech, motor vehicles, government, and industrial equipment By that year, they expect e-BMM will reach an annual value of 2.8 trillion dollars, and account for 24% of all BMM commerce at that time . Worldwide, the projected number estimated by the Gartner Group is 7.3 trillion dollars . Sadly though, it seems that the competitive forces that have rattled the B-to-C market are now doing the same to the BMM exchanges. Too many sites chasing too few dollars, too many operating under misguided strategies, and some poor management have led to the all-too-familiar crash and burn cycle. It is by now apparent that the industry is in the midst of another shakeout . AMR Research predicts that 90% of current online BMM marketplaces will become bankrupt, merge, or be acquired . In theory, it was to be a wonderful proposition, its promise hailed across the business world and throughout industries—streamlining the sales and procurement, ensuring good competition, and much more. But reality has sunk in. The costs for participation in these exchanges have not made the e-marketplaces accessible to all, as was originally anticipated . Additionally, there is a great deal of uncertainty attached to the field, all this while the stakes are increasingly higher—supply chains, marketing strategies, processes, operations, and business models are all going to depend and be shaped by the outcome of the electronic BMM. Essentially, there are three major flaws that have been described: the value proposition—getting the lowest price for products—does not work for all companies, and even for those which it does, not all the time; there is absolutely no reason for the suppliers to compete anonymously on products that are commoditized; and finally, most exchanges in their rush to market have not considered all of their customers' priorities and needs. Some look to the financial industry for clues as to how the exchanges may evolve (see Table 5) . According to analysts at the Gartner Group, many exchanges are not going to succeed for long simply because there are too many of them. Currently, the number stands at approximately 10 per industry, while analysts tend to believe, and predict, that only 3 per industry shall remain. Some of the key issues that will determine whether the exchanges will succeed seem to be: offering easy integration with the company's resource planning product; openness to future developments; and connectivity to other e-marketplaces . Other analysts seem to think that there will ultimately remain a few mega sites that will offer a soup-to-nuts array of products and services . Research sponsored by the National Association of Purchasing Management shows nearly 73% of firms indirectly purchase over the Internet, up from 71% second quarter 2001. During the same period, 54% of buyers said they purchase direct materials over the Internet, up from the 46% last quarter, and sent 9.8% of their total direct materials over the Net. Online auctions expanded as over 20% of firms bought products or services through this vehicle, up from 15%. Large-volume buying organizations engaging in online collaboration with suppliers was 46%, down from 56%. But small-volume buyers increased their online collaboration activity to 41% from only about 35% second quarter 2001 . Overall participation in online exchanges increases according to number of employees, and even more dramatically according to revenues, reports Cyber Dialogue. Eight percent of online small businesses, or 316,000 businesses, actually participate in these online channels. In the future, 12% plan to do so. Selling (62%), seeking information (58%), and making purchases (42%) are the most common activities that small businesses conduct when they participate in exchanges or OLMs. Retail (13%) leads the way on industry participation rates for online exchanges, followed by wholesale (11%) and manufacturing (9%) .