چاپ تبلیغاتی : مجریان مشهور
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|2165||2012||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 65, Issue 6, June 2012, Pages 874–879
This study validates Rossiter and Percy's (1987) hook theory of presenter characteristics, for celebrity presenters. Firstly, by employing a product-alone control group, the study demonstrates that some celebrity-product pairings have a good fit and can persuade whereas others have no effect or represent such an obviously poor fit that they dissuade consumers from buying the product. Secondly, the study suggests that good fit, and thus persuasion, for celebrity presenters, depends on the audience immediately perceiving that the celebrity is an expert user of the product (for all products) and is a positive role model (for high-risk products). On the other hand, the study reveals that failure of any of four of the celebrity's characteristics causes dissuasion by celebrity presenters; these failures include lack of high visibility (i.e., not widely well-known), perceived inexpertness as a user of the product (a strong negative hook that is probably the reason for the poor fit perception), lack of trust (though this is a weak dissuasive factor for celebrities) and, paradoxically, the celebrity being too likable (for low-risk products). Thirdly, the hook(s) conceptualization of presenter characteristics is superior to the conventional linear conceptualization in that a hook-scored regression model accounted for the same amount of variance in persuasion–dissuasion as did the linear model (adjusted R2s of 41% vs. 43%) despite the hook model's handicap of at least one-third lower possible R2 due to trichotomization of 7-point ratings into positive, neutral, and negative hooks.
A major strategic decision in advertising is whether or not to use a presenter. Executionally, thereafter, the decision evolves into what characteristics the presenter should have to maximally influence persuasion. Rossiter and Percy (1987) propose a hook theory of the way presenters' characteristics operate; in contrast with all other theories of presenter effects, hook theory postulates that presenters' characteristics work in a positive threshold manner (and sometimes in a negative threshold manner) rather than in a positive, linear manner. Rossiter and Percy's (1987) VisCAP model of presenter characteristics incorporates hook theory. The theory's characteristics are visibility (widely well-known, necessary for celebrity presenters and creatable via advertising for “real people” presenters and animated characters), credibility (expertise and trustworthiness), attraction (likability and role-model identification), and power (for coercive persuasion that rarely applies except in public service advertising). Some presenter theories postulate that physical (facial) attractiveness is also persuasive but this is merely because it heightens perceived credibility (Patzer, 1985). Thus, five specific presenter characteristics are relevant for advertising: visibility or well-knownness, expertise, trustworthiness, likability, and role-model identification.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The two most important findings differ from prior expectations. The first important finding is how little effect the addition of a celebrity presenter had on persuasion, even when there was a pre-rated high fit of the presenter with the product. Looking back at Table 2, even for the high-fit pairings (left-hand side of table) the presenter's incremental persuasion effect in the successful cases averaged only about 10% projected net sales increase. However, these celebrity-product pairings were hypothetical in the experiment, and actual celebrity advertisements undoubtedly would be much more effective – primarily by drawing many more consumers' attention to the advertised product (see Holman and Hecker, 1983, Rossiter and Bellman, 2005, Rossiter and Percy, 1987 and Rossiter and Percy, 1997). The second important finding was the unexpected severity of the negative effect – dissuasion – when a celebrity with low fit with the product is hired. Low-fit pairings are not uncommon in the real world when celebrities are hired for other reasons, such as ongoing contractual obligations to the company or the CEO's whim. Classic acknowledged failures of fit were comedian Bill Cosby for the brokerage firm E.F. Hutton, British dramatic actor John Houseman for McDonald's, Celine Dion for Chrysler, and Jennifer Lopez for Louis Vuitton luggage. Looking back at Table 1 for low-fit pairings (left-hand side of table) it can be seen that in no cases did significant persuasion result and that severe dissuasion was much more likely, averaging about 20% estimated loss of potential sales. In actual advertisements, the massively increased attention effect that a well-known celebrity produces would possibly offset the negative attitudinal effect. However, the pairing is still likely to be unprofitable given the cost of the celebrity.