ارتباط بین فعالیت های بازار محور و فرهنگ بازار محور: مفاهیم برای توسعه جهت گیری بازار در سازمان های غیر انتفاعی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16386||2005||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 58, Issue 6, June 2005, Pages 854–862
Market orientation is the means by which the theoretical marketing concept is implemented. As of yet, however, no agreement has been reached on the exact nature of market orientation. It is viewed as a cultural construct, a behavioral construct, or a hybrid incorporating both cultural and behavioral aspects or as separate behavioral and cultural constructs that are causally related. Our study is an investigation of alternative models that incorporate separate cultural and behavioral constructs and the relationship between them. In the nonprofit service organizations studied here, results show that a positive relationship between market-oriented behaviors and organizational performance is mediated by market-oriented culture. The study contributes to an understanding of the theoretical relationship between market-oriented culture and behaviors in nonprofit organizations, and also to the managerial processes involved in introducing market orientation into this sector.
The marketing concept states that organizational success depends upon satisfying customers' needs better than competitors (Kotler and Armstrong, 1994). Thus, it is widely believed that market orientation, the implementation of the marketing concept, leads to higher levels of organizational performance in business organizations. A comprehensive search of the empirical literature revealed that 13 of 19 studies found a significant positive relationship between market orientation and at least one performance variable, while only six did not. A search of five recent studies of nonprofit organizations also revealed that four of these studies found the same positive relationship between market orientation and organizational success. Given the evidence that market orientation can play an important role in management, this study was undertaken to investigate the process involved in its development in the nonprofit sector. Early work on market orientation (Deshpande and Webster, 1989) led to two interpretations of market orientation: (1) values that are part of an organization's culture, and (2) activities that implement the marketing concept. Despite recognition that these different interpretations exist (e.g., Kumar and Subramanian, 2000 and Moorman and Rust, 1999) and some attempts to blend them (e.g., Ruekert, 1992 and Pelham and Wilson, 1996), no consensus on the nature of market orientation has emerged. Moreover, many researchers simply measure market orientation according to one interpretation and do not incorporate both a culture and an activities perspective into their research. Hurley and Hult (1998) question the practice of treating market orientation as an aspect of culture or a set of behaviors that are substitute measures for the same construct and suggest that there may be a causal, “values-drive-behaviors” relationship between them. It may be possible that a reverse order is also worthy of consideration, given (a) concerns in the literature about the appropriateness of the “rational” model (e.g., Bowles, 1997 and Slater and Narver, 1995) and (b) findings that subjective factors have a significant impact on market orientation (Harris, 1999). An investigation of the relationship between these two different constructs of market orientation not only has theoretical implications but is also relevant to the process involved in introducing market orientation into organizations. A better understanding of the causal relationship between market-oriented values and behaviors will suggest where managers should focus their efforts when initiating a change in organizational culture. However, the process of introducing market orientation into organizations has received scant attention in the literature (Tadepalli and Avila, 1999). In this study, we build upon the above stream of literature that recognizes market-oriented values and behaviors as two separate constructs that are causally related and develop and test two empirical models of the relationship between organizational values and behaviors that are applicable to the process of introducing market orientation into nonprofit organizations. 1.1. Market orientation in the nonprofit sector In the nonprofit sector, it is difficult to define the market towards which an organization might be oriented inasmuch as most nonprofit organizations engage in relationships with several markets at once. In a nonprofit marketing environment, there is a basic division between those who consume the services or the messages the organization produces and those who provide the resources that are used in that production (Lovelock and Weinberg, 1989). The implication of this notion for research on market orientation in the nonprofit sector is that studies must analyze data which do not conflate an organization's activities and values with respect to different constituencies. While market orientation in several of an organization's markets could be studied simultaneously, data must be collected using appropriate constructs and measures for each different constituency of interest (clients, donors, taxpayers, policy makers, etc.). Understanding organizational success is equally problematic. In the nonprofit sector, success is likely to be measured using a variety of nonquantitative measures as opposed to profit sector measures like ROI Herman, 1990 and Kanter and Summers, 1987. While financial performance may be examined in the nonprofit sector, this variable is obviously only relevant when examining outcomes in the resource provision market. Other variables often provide more important information when studying the responses of other constituencies (such as “satisfaction” for client-serving organizations or “public opinion” for advocacy organizations). In this paper, we explore an important question for nonprofit managers, namely, how to improve the ability of their organizations to respond to the needs of their constituents, by examining market orientation in one nonprofit constituency (that of the market for clients) in a subset of nonprofit organizations operating in the cultural, social service, and community sectors (those that are in the business of providing services and attracting users for those services). While these organizations and this market constitute an extremely important aspect of nonprofit marketing, however, it should be noted that this study is not representative of the whole set of nonprofit markets and organizations in which market orientation could be studied.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research confirms that both client-oriented culture and client-oriented behavior are important in predicting organizational performance and that there appears to be a causal relationship between them in which a client-oriented culture mediates the relationship between engagement in a specific set of activities and higher levels of client satisfaction with the organization, its programs and its role in the community. This study thus supports previous findings on the market orientation–performance relationship and provides empirical evidence that this theory can be extended to the nonprofit sector. Moreover, it provides important guidelines to managers about where to start when it comes to initiating change with respect to market orientation in nonprofit organizations. From a managerial perspective, initiating client-oriented activities prior to attempting to instill a client-oriented culture through education programs, for example, has practical advantages. Success with market-oriented activities may help overcome employee resistance to change. It should also reduce the risk to human and financial resources associated with imposing cultural change in a deliberate, top-down manner (Harris, 1999). Notably, in terms of management theory, the “activities predicts culture” finding is consistent with the “adoption–entrenchment” theory of new management processes proposed by Zeitz et al. (1999). Based on a combination of diffusion theory and institutional theory, they posit that adoption of new management processes is heavily influenced by modeling, that is, mimicry of other organizations and stories of the success achieved with other similar practices. Entrenchment of the new process occurs over time if organizational experiments with it prove successful. With entrenchment, the new approach becomes part of the organization's existing knowledge structure/culture and influences future activities related to it. It should be noted, however, that while this study contributes to both theoretical and practical knowledge of the organizational process involved in introducing a market orientation into nonprofit organizations, the limitations of the study suggest a number of areas in which further research could profitably be undertaken. Although cross-sectional studies are common in the market orientation literature, the findings would be improved if longitudinal data were collected on activities, culture, and outcomes. In addition, although CEOs are in a position to provide excellent information about the constructs measured here, data collected from multiple sources, such as peer organizations, employees, and clients themselves, would lead to a more complete understanding of the relationships between values and behaviors. Finally, we have collected data from a sample of organizations that represent a broad range of nonprofit activities and programs in an attempt to draw conclusions that are generalizable across large parts of the nonprofit sector. However, different patterns with regard to the implementation of market orientation may occur in nonprofit organizations that are focused on different types of activities (advocacy as opposed to service delivery) or that rely on different types of revenue sources (client fees as opposed to government grants as opposed to private donations) and a more complete understanding of the processes described here could perhaps be achieved through cross-sector analysis. Moreover, it may be that the market-back approach also applies to organizations outside the nonprofit sector and further empirical work could determine how far the results presented here extend.