درصد عملی بودن تامین تجهیزات رقابتی بلاک استارت: درسهایی از RTOS
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|16934||2007||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Electricity Journal, Volume 20, Issue 8, October 2007, Pages 60–67
Black start services are a small but vital part of the plethora of products and services necessary for the reliable operation of a grid, a fact brought home whenever there is a serious blackout. In such a situation black-start-capable units bear the responsibility to start themselves and begin the islanding process that is the first step of any system restoration plan. Some black start capability is a necessary component of reliable grid operation. Although the need for this service is clear, its procurement in a deregulated environment is quite varied. Traditionally, black start was provided by integrated utilities and the costs were rolled into a broad tariff for cost recovery. In the deregulated environment this legacy of cost-based provision has persisted, and even recent overhauls of black start procurement practices, such as that by the New England Independent System Operator (ISO-NE), have not necessarily shifted to competitive procurement, despite the fact that deregulated entities have a bias for market solutions rather than cost-of-service (COS) solutions. The fact that black start procurement costs are relatively minor belies their true importance. Blackouts when they occur can cost millions of dollars per hour in lost production for the economy generally. By implication, an optimal islanding process born of an efficient structure can save some of those millions. This article explores why and how black start might be competitively procured, and examines the practices of a number of different system operators to see how their experiences shed light on the procurement of black start services. It emphasizes the procurement structure of the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) as a framework for making the procurement of black start competitive.1
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The procurement of black start services is a vital component of system restoration in all markets, not only deregulated ones. ERCOT and other jurisdictions have working methods of competitive procurement that allow an explicit market mechanism to make the cost tradeoffs, while taking account of the network topology. ERCOT in particular appears to have developed the RFP process without being affected by market power concerns. The five years of operation of the market in ERCOT, as well as experience in other jurisdictions, is evidence of the veracity of this approach and should be sufficient to establish the presumption that competitive procurement for black start should be considered viable. Competitive procurement of black start promises not only cheaper procurement costs, but possibly also a more optimal islanding process due to the periodic re-evaluation required by the iterative auction. The cost savings resulting from this benefit could easily repay the time and effort of implementing competitive procurement. 1 Competitive procurement is not a uniform concept. It is often contrasted with COS procurement, but even within the competitive procurement framework there are variations. Regulation and reserves are often procured hourly in deep and liquid markets. This, however, is not the only method of competitive procurement although it is the most commonly quoted. Other competitive methods include tender methods in which bids are solicited and accepted for predefined services, often with a longer time frame, such as a year or more. This is still a competitive procurement, albeit different to the hourly procurement common for regulation and reserves. 2 See Catherine Wolfram, The Efficiency of Electricity Generation in the U.S. after Restructuring, Center for the Study of Energy Markets, Univ. of California Energy Institute Working Paper No. 111, June 2003, available at http://www.ucei.berkeley.edu/PDF/csemwp111.pdf. 3 That being said, this method of restoration can extend the time and increase the complexity of system restoration when compared to having local generation with black start capability. 4 Brendan Kirby and Eric Hirst, Maintaining System Black Start In Competitive Bulk-Power Markets, American Power Conference, Chicago, April 1999, available online at: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/btc/apps/Restructuring/pub.htm. 5 The CAISO recently undertook to re-examine its procurement of black start in a FERC compliance filing. See the CAISO's FERC filing under Docket ER98-3760 of Jan. 30 2006, available online at http://www.caiso.com/pubinfo/FERC/filings/index.html. For information on the CAISO policy development visit the Voltage Support and Black Start tab at http://www.caiso.com/docs/2005/06/09/2005060910374912494.html. 6 See PJM Tariff: Schedule 6A of the PJM Tariff, available online at http://www.pjm.com/documents/downloads/agreements/tariff.pdf and Black Start Business Rules, available online at http://www.pjm.com/markets/ancillary/downloads/blackstart-buss-rules.pdf. 7 See the NYISO Accounting and Billing Manual, 2006, available online at http://www.nyiso.com/public/webdocs/documents/manuals/administrative/acctbillmnl.pdf; NYISO Ancillary Services Manual 2006, available at http://www.nyiso.com/public/documents/manuals/operations.jsp?maxDisplay=20; and NYISO Tariff (2006) at Rate Schedule 5, starting at 91, Revised Sheet 311, and Rate Schedule 6, starting at Revised Sheet No. 269, available online at http://www.nyiso.com/public/webdocs/documents/tariffs/market_services/rate_schedules.pdf. 8 See ISO-NE “Order Accepting Application” Docket No. ER03-291, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Issued Feb. 14 2003, available online at http://www.iso-ne.com/committees/comm_wkgrps/trans_comm/tariff_comm/mtrls/2006/may162006/index.html; and ISO-NE Open Access Transmission Tariff 2006, at 311, available online at http://www.iso-ne.com/regulatory/tariff/sect_2/oatt/index.html. 9 ISO-NE A3 Black Start Working Group Memo to the NEPOOL Transmission Committee, May 9, 2006, available online at http://www.iso-ne.com/committees/comm_wkgrps/trans_comm/tariff_comm/mtrls/2006/may162006/index.html. 10 See ERCOT Protocols Section 6, 2006, available online at http://www.ercot.com/mktrules/protocols/current.html. 11 ERCOT's bidding form is available online at: http://www.ercot.com/mktrules/protocols/current/22-%28A%29BlackStart-050105.doc. 12 See the Electricity Commission of New Zealand's Governance Rules, Schedule C5, Nov. 1, 2005, at 180–182, available online at http://www.electricitycommission.govt.nz/pdfs/rulesandregs/rules/rulespdf/Part-C-sched-C5-1Nov05.pdf. 13 See http://www.aeso.ca/files/Nov05_BlackstartPP_v1.pdf. 14 See http://www.theimo.com/imoweb/marketsAndPrograms/anc_serv.asp.