بازاریابی رابطه ای در بخش غیر انتفاعی : گسترش و کاربرد نظریه تعهد ـــ اعتماد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|2815||2005||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Business Research, Volume 58, Issue 6, June 2005, Pages 806–818
Several theorists advocate the application of relationship marketing concepts to the not-for-profit organisation (NPO) sector. The authors build on these contributions to adapt and extend the Morgan and Hunt [J. Mark. 58 (1994) 20] commitment–trust model to the NPO sector. The proposed model is applied to the relationship between an NPO and its organisational funders and is empirically tested. The empirical work is based on responses from 41 NPO funders. A partial least squares (PLS) analysis is used to identify the significant factors in the proposed model. Major contributions to the model of relationship marketing include (1) replacing the relationship benefit construct with two new constructs—material benefits and nonmaterial benefits; (2) extending the communication construct to include items that reflect the two-way nature of the dyad between the funders and the NPO; (3) demonstrating the significance of nonmaterial benefits as a mediator of the link between trust and commitment; (4) highlighting the lack of significance of material benefits and termination costs as drivers of commitment. The model provides fundraisers in the NPO sector with a framework to understand and improve their relationships with organisational funders.
Nonprofit organisations (NPOs) operate in a highly competitive environment (Sargeant, 2001a). Sargeant (2001a) argues that competition from the increasing number of NPOs, combined with a decreasing funder pool, (Pharoah and Tanner, 1998) has led many NPOs to increasingly rely on a small number of key funders (NCVO, 1999). To survive and thrive in this competitive environment, theorists such as Burnett (1998), Sagawa (2001) and Sabo (2002) propose that NPOs should concentrate on maintaining and developing relationships with existing funders. Others, however, have warned that investing in relationships is expensive and may not, in fact, provide the expected benefits Reinartz and Kumar, 2000 and Payne and Holt, 2001. Selecting a group that provides most value to an NPO is therefore crucial Sargeant and Stephenson, 1997, Sharma and Lambert, 1994 and Reinartz and Kumar, 2000. Many NPOs rely on donations from both individuals and organisations (such as corporations, trusts and governments). While both sources of funding are important, the average value of each organisational funder is often suggested to be higher than that of each individual (See Burlingame, 2001; Sargeant and Stephenson, 1997). Therefore, NPOs would benefit from focusing on strengthening their relationships with organisational funders. From an extensive literature review, use of focus groups and in-depth interviews, the Morgan and Hunt (1994) model of relationship marketing is adapted and extended to the NPO setting, thereby providing a model of NPO–funder relationships. Although this model still embraces the concepts of commitment and trust at its core, it differs in a number of respects from the original Morgan and Hunt model. Key differences are the following: 1. The concept of relationship benefits is replaced by two new constructs: material and nonmaterial benefits. 2. The trust–commitment link is mediated by nonmaterial benefits. 3. Material benefits are an antecedent of commitment, replacing the relationship benefits construct of Morgan and Hunt. 4. The communication construct is extended to include items that reflect the two-way nature of this process—both informing and listening. Only the former is included in the Morgan and Hunt model. 5. The commitment and relationship termination cost constructs, used by Morgan and Hunt, require minor adaptation in the wording of the construct items. 6. The opportunistic behaviour, shared values and trust constructs are replaced by more appropriate scales from other published works. The development and administration of a questionnaire was a further output. This questionnaire was used to collect the data for empirical testing of the proposed NPO–funder relationship model. Data were obtained from 41 funders of an NPO. The data were analysed using partial least squares (PLS) analysis (Chin and Newstead, 1999). The findings are subsequently discussed.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
There are few academic empirical studies that apply relationship marketing models to the NPO sector. A contribution of this study is the extension of the relationship marketing literature to NPO funders. Both the relationship marketing area and the NPO sector can benefit from the validation of current understandings and the extension and development of new ideas. The fitted model presented in Fig. 4 explains 52% of the variance in the commitment of funders to continue funding a NPO through the key constructs of nonmaterial benefits and shared values. NPOs would, therefore, be well advised to engage in strategies that develop nonmaterial benefits, since it is this factor that is the major driver of commitment. The introduction of the concept of nonmaterial benefits offers the potential for application to a variety of service and nonprofit organisations, particularly where there is a disconnect between users and funders. The research also provides valuable insights into how organisations can improve the nonmaterial benefits they offer to their funders. For example, organisations can develop nonmaterial benefits by allowing funders greater involvement in their activities, demonstrating the achievements of the organisation and offering greater transparency of their operations. There appears to be a particularly close set of links between nonmaterial benefits, trust and communication. Communication impacts directly on nonmaterial benefits as well as indirectly via trust. Communication is therefore crucial and we have suggested three subdimensions, namely, informing, listening and staff interaction. Both the qualitative and quantitative results provide evidence to support these subdimensions and fundraisers may make use of this finding in their professional role. Fundraisers may provide information about the NPO, but funders are not likely to believe this unless they trust the organisation in the first place. Our qualitative interviews suggest that it is particularly important for an NPO to listen to its funders to build trust. This in turn validates the information that is provided by the NPO. Fundraisers, therefore, need both to inform and to listen. The qualitative results also suggest that the type of person used in fundraising is important. Funders want to be informed and listened to by a person who has direct experience of the NPO's client activities, rather than an expert in fundraising per se. NPOs should devise a fundraising strategy that reflects this. To build trust, communication needs to be supported by two other factors: shared values and nonopportunistic behaviours. The former relates to funders' identification with the cause of the NPO and the latter to the NPO not taking unfair advantage of funders by, for example, exploiting its contacts without their consent. More research is required to further develop our understanding of other contexts and cultures. There is also scope for applying this model to other stakeholder groups and expanding the model to include outcome variables consequent on commitment and trust.