عملکرد خطوط هوایی در زمینه بازارهای جدید : تجزیه و تحلیل مقایسه ای بهره وری و کارایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|13996||2008||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Air Transport Management, Volume 14, Issue 5, September 2008, Pages 270–274
This paper analyses airlines’ efficiency and productivity using two different methodologies: data envelopment analysis and total factor productivity, and we additionally investigate which factors account for differences in efficiency. Our main findings show that low-cost carriers are in general more efficient than full-service carriers, efficiency and the dispersion of both data envelopment analysis and total factor productivity indexes amongst airlines differ according to geographical areas, which may be a result of different legislation and de-regulation processes, and so of specific competitive conditions, labour is the only input that definitively influences productivity, and larger airlines are more efficient, suggesting the existence of economies of scale.
The air transport market has undergone considerable change. De-regulation in Europe, North America and Australia, have led to a significantly increased competition, and along with de-regulation, many European airlines that were formerly state-owned have been either fully or partially privatised. Also, adjustments following the events of September 11 have affected the environment in which air services are provided. Finally, the large-scale market entry of low-cost carriers (LCCs) has increased competition and affected the fares charged by incumbent airlines. As a consequence of these and other developments, it is probable that the relative efficiency of the world's airlines has changed. This paper performs analysis on the comparative efficiency of airlines in this new market context looking at a large sample of airlines and using two different methods of measuring performance efficiency. The sample is of 49 carriers with 2005 data. Additionally, possible factors that may account for higher productivity are examined. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and total factor productivity (TFP) methods are used for analysis. Further, we use regression analysis to find out which factors account for productivity differences. DEA efficiency studies of airlines are numerous. Some of the recent studies include Scheraga (2004), who, using data for 38 airlines from around the world for 1995 and 2000 found that relative efficiency had changed little. Fethi et al. (2001) looked at 17 European carriers for 1991 and 1995 and found that by 1995 it was too soon to find any improved efficiency. Oum and Yu (1995) analysed 23 airlines over the period from 1986 to 1993 and found that those that most improved their efficiency were European airlines, in particular, having had low indexes in 1986. Fare et al. (2007) studied the effects of deregulation on the productivity of 13 US airlines. Except for Sheraga, other studies used data prior to 1995 before LCCs were important and too soon in most cases to examine the medium-term effects of deregulation and liberalisation. Our analysis captures the effects of the new market environment introduced by these new conditions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Examining our results from a large sample of airlines using two alternative methodologies: DEA and TFP shows that LCCs are, in general, more efficient than FSCs because of the business model they follow, and not because of their size and input mix. Further, DEA analysis suggests that both efficiency and effectiveness are not always correlated; while some airlines emerge efficient and effective, this is not always the case. TFP analysis shows that in airlines from regions that have more homogeneous regulatory structures, like North America, are more uniform in their productivity. The general results are robust regardless of whether programming or statistical analysis is applied.